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May 2014 VA Hep C Treatment Guidelines
UPDATE: Feb 26, 2016-
Funding and Prioritization Status Update

UPDATE: March 2016
VA Hep C Treatment Guidelines
VA to treat all vets in system
 

By Judith Graham
VA Extends New Hepatitis C Drugs to All Veterans in Its Health System

 
Orange Count Registry
Vietnam vets blame 'jet guns' for their hepatitis C
By Lily Leung Feb. 14, 2016 
 
CBS News Investigates
Congress outraged over hepatitis C treatment VA can't afford
Dr. Raymond Schinazi played a leading role developing a drug that cures hepatitis C while working seven-eighths of his time for the VA
 
ibtimes.com| By amynordrum
 


Hepatitis C drug costing VA, DoD millions
By Patricia Kime, Staff writer
We're looking at a company who is milking a cash cow for everything it's worth," Sanders said. 
 


VA to outsource care for 180,000 vets with hepatitis C
Dennis Wagner, The Arizona Republic 12:27 a.m. EDT June 21, 2015
 


VA to outsource care for 180,000 vets with hepatitis C
, The Republic | azcentral.com 11:51 a.m. MST June 19, 2015
Dr. David Ross, the VA's director public-health pathogens programs, resigned from the working group. "I cannot in good conscience continue to work on a plan for rationing care to veterans," he wrote.
 


VA Region Stops Referring Patients To Outside Hospitals Thanks To Budget Shortfall
Michael Volpe Contributor ...According to a memo — the entire region has been forced to stop all “non-VA care” referrals due to a budget shortfall.
 

DisabledVeterans.org
OIG INVESTIGATES VA CHOICE PROGRAM PROBLEMS
Sen. Mark Kirk admitted the VA Choice Program is a failed joke in a letter to Secretary Bob McDonald despite attempts to fix it.
 

 
Denied Hep C VA dental care?
Please click here

 
Dried Hepatitis C Blood Exposure 11/23/2013 Weeks later inconspicuous blood transmits virus and more likely to cause accidental exposures to Hep C
 

Lack of Standards for
Mass Vaccinations
1970 Jetgun Nursing Instructions
 

2014 AASLD Study Hepatitis C not an STD

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Need to know-Grassroots Research
 
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One Vets' Journey Though Treatment
 

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 What Would Veterans Do?
Blog for VA Claims
 


Help with VA Claims
 


 
Info: Plan Backfires-
VBA Fast Letter Boost Claims
 
Legal- Fed Regs state:
Judge decision may be relied upon
Cotant v. Principi, 17 Vet.App. 116, 134 (2003),
 
Service Connected Claims
# 1 Conclusion of Law 
# 2 Conclusion of Law 
 
More Claims
Jetgun Decisions
Hep C Decisions
 
Search Board of Appeals Website
BVA Jetgun Decisions
BVA Hepatitis C Decisions

Great Advice!  
After the jetgun win
What to do next

 

 

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In the Spotlight November 29, 2007
COTT / NHF / HFA Open Letter on Safety

An Open Letter to the Manufacturers of Clotting Factor Products and the Government Agencies who Regulate Them:

Individuals affected by bleeding disorders depend on the availability of safe and efficacious clotting factor concentrates for their very lives. In the 1980s, the community was ravaged by the proliferation of HIV/AIDS and HCV tainted plasma derivatives. Many lessons were learned during that period about the importance of vigilance, and today we are fortunate to have an adequate supply of safe products, both recombinant and plasma-derived. However, recent events have created the perception that vigilance has started to wane.
Committee of Ten Thousand

July 17, 2008 The New York Times- Problems Persist With Red Cross Blood Services For 15 years, the American Red Cross has been under a federal court order to improve the way it collects and processes blood. Yet, despite $21 million in fines since 2003 and repeated promises to follow procedures intended to ensure the safety of the nation’s blood supply, it continues to fall short....Various records of F.D.A. inspections... highlight poor follow-up, including falsified records..."We have never truly moved away from independence to national, central standards,” said J. Chris Hrouda, executive vice president and a 20-year veteran of the Red Cross’s biomedical services, as the blood operations are known.


 

Non-Drug Related
Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
1977-2008

Table Highlights:

 

Book Mark This page- it will be continually updated as developments occur. (Last update 04/19/2016
Oct. 2008 The hazards of blood transfusion in historical perspective- Harvey J. Alter1,*, and Harvey G. Klein1,* ...over the course of almost 3 decades... Retrospective testing showed that only 25% of TAH was hepatitis B–related... 75% of cases tentatively classified as non-B hepatitis ... In 1975, ...NIH discovered the hepatitis A virus (HAV), and we immediately tested stored sera from our non-B hepatitis cases. Surprisingly, not a single case was due to HAV, the only other known hepatitis virus at that time. Hence, the origin of the designation "non-A, non-B hepatitis,"9
January 2008 WHO > Programmes and projects > Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) > Diseases covered by EPR > Hepatitis ... the only means of protection are the implementation universal precautions and safe injection practices. Read more
October 2006
75% of College Students Report Risk Factors for Hepatitis C
College undergraduates in the United States do not recognize the magnitude of their risk behaviors for contracting Hepatitis C, according to a survey conducted at a large midwestern university. Researchers found that 75 percent of undergraduates in this study had a potential Hepatitis C risk factor, from tattoos to sharing body jewelry. Results of this study were presented at the 71st Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology in Las Vegas.
July 03, 2008 News & Star News Number of teenagers being treated for hepatitis has quadrupled By Steph Johnson- The number of teenagers being sent out of county to be treated for Hepatitis B and C has more than quadrupled over the last year... Since 2005, there has been a 28 per cent increase in Hepatitis C diagnosis for adults
2004 Study: Analysis of a hepatitis C screening for US Veterans Dept. of Preventive Medicine, HSC Level 3, Rm. 086, SUNY at Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036, USA. In the multivariate model developed... service during the Vietnam era, tattoo, and a history of abnormal liver function tests were independent predictors of HCV infection. Our data support considering a more targeted screening approach that includes five of the 11 risk factors.
September 2001 Don't Reuse Single-Use Medication Vials -Source: Healthcare Hazard Management Monitor -Improper medication practices in 15 patients in a hemodialysis center over a five-week period were associated with inappropriate use of single-use medication vials...often pooled residual medications to avoid waste...The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with the drug manufacturer, issued an advisory to hemodialysis centers...
October 1999 Safety and availability of immunoglobulin replacement therapy in relation to potentially transmissable agents Clinical & Experimental Immunology Volume 118 Issue s1 Page 29 - ... However, the role of partitioning of viruses ...amount of recoverable HCV-RNA in the various Cohn fractions changed dramatically ...As Cohn–Oncley fractionation is not sufficient to remove lipid-coated viruses, additional antiviral inactivation steps are required. More info
September 1999, Sterilants and Disinfectants Applied and Environmental Microbiology, p. 4255-4260, Vol. 65, No. 90099-2240/99/$04.00+0 Bacterial Spores Survive Treatment with Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants Hepatitis C Survives Treatment with Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants
12/23/1996 Partially Manufactured Pastes Withdrawn Due to the Possibility of the Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (multiple manufacturers) - More HCV related glue documents
Variations on length of time to continue testing for HCV after exposure.

The Hepatitis Report By Michael Marco-Natural History, Clinical Manifestations, and Prognostic Indicators of Disease Progression and Survival of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection-Approximately 20% of newly individuals have symptoms that arise before the seroconversion to anti-HCV occurs (antibody-positive) (Koretz 1993). The average time from exposure to seroconversion is approximately 50 days, although it can be as long as nine months (Tremolada 1991; MJ Alter 1992).

Home » Physicians & Hospitals » Hepatitis C Lookback- Seroconversion...

Because the maximum ("window") period before seroconversion is 12 months, recipients of donations up to 12 months before the most recent negative screening test will be notified.
 

May 16, 2008 / 57(19);513-517 Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infections Attributed to Unsafe Injection Practices at an Endoscopy Clinic --- Nevada, 2007 typical incubation period of 15--160 days. (Mmmm... Also, note the requirements for those tested...in the absence of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV); and 3) did not have other risks for HCV infection.)
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5719a2.htm?s_cid=mm5719a2_e
 

Non-Drug Related
Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
2006-2009

The information relays to the reader the importance of addressing methods specific for HCV Transmission. Currently, IV drug use and related behaviors are cornerstone for the Centers of Disease Control strategy plan to control HCV. Legally, HIV grants for education and prevention, require only HIV transmission methods be addressed.

Table Highlights:

May 15, 2008 New York State HCV Patient safety bill would publicize doctors' names
Newsday.com BY RIDGELY OCHS Gov. David A. Paterson introduced ...give the state more authority in health investigations and, for the first time, make public names of doctors under scrutiny...require every medical student to complete infection control training and show proof of it...how to prevent hepatitis C transmission, not just hepatitis B and HIV... restricting the use of multiuse medicine vials and requiring the use of "disposable medical equipment" engineered for single use.
Vaccine. 2008 Mar 4;26(10):1344-52. Epub 2008 Jan 18. Preventing contamination between injections with multiple-use nozzle needle-free injectors: a safety trial.- The study ended early because the protector cap needle-free injector (PCNFI) failed to prevent contamination in the first batch tested (8.2% failure rate).
February 7, 2007 Prostate biopsy between 1989 and 2003 FDA News FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE P07-14 Media Inquiries: FDA Press Office, 301-827-6242 Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA- Custom Ultrasonics Signs Consent Decree- Company agrees to stop manufacturing devices that wash and disinfect endoscopes until it corrects problems...
June 19, 2006 Prostate biopsy between 1989 and 2003 FDA Public Health Notification: Reprocessing of Reusable Ultrasound Transducer Assemblies Used for Biopsy Procedures
June 2, 2006 MILWAUKEE - More than 22,000 veterans who underwent prostate biopsies at veterans' hospitals across the country are being warned that improperly sterilized equipment may have exposed them to deadly viruses...inadequacies with the biopsy cleaning procedure at 21 medical centers in 18 states, plus Puerto Rico.
November 2006 Journal of Viral Hepatitis 13(11): 775-782. 15 independent risk factors for HCV By Liz Highleyman a significant proportion of hepatitis C patients (20%-40%) have no identified route of transmission. In conclusion, the authors wrote, ... our data incriminate previously unidentified risk factors (abortions, some dermatological procedures, outpatient injections, contact sports, beauty treatments, professional pedicure/manicure) and confirm those already recognized hospitalization, digestive endoscopy, acupuncture...
March 2005 Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology Association Between Smallpox Vaccination and Hepatitis C Antibody Positive Serology in Pakistani Volunteers. These results suggest that the widespread prevalence of hepatitis C infection...may be an unintended consequence of the country's smallpox vaccination program...
2004 55th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases- David Bernstein, MD- Hepatitis C -- Current State of the Art and Future Directions CME- - Prevalence and Natural History- Trends in Hepatitis C Prevalence in the United States - ...One of the major shortcomings of this study (NHANES III survey) is that it reports on the prevalence of the hepatitis C antibody, which may indicate previous exposure or active disease. This study does not report on disease prevalence, as prevalence of hepatitis C infection is defined by the presence of hepatitis C viral RNA in serum. Only 148 of the 15,079 participants had serum available for hepatitis C viral RNA testing, making any statements regarding disease prevalence, and not potential exposure to the disease, invalid.
2009
3/31/ Manhattan MD loses license in hepatitis probe
The Associated Press NEW YORK (AP) - A Manhattan anesthesiologist has lost his medical license after state officials said his sloppy injection techniques infected at least 11 patients with hepatitis.
 

March 27, Kerry urges probe of unsanitary conditions at VA- Senator John F. Kerry this afternoon urged the inspector general at the Department of Veterans Affairs to investigate sanitation standards at VA hospitals, following reports this week that facilities in Florida and Tennessee rinsed, but did not disinfect equipment used in colonoscopies. As many as 9,000 patients may have had invasive procedures with contaminated equipment, potentially exposing them to infectious diseases including hepatitis.

Mar 26, 2009 VA mum extent of equipment contamination By Bill Poovey - The Associated Press CHATTANOOGA, Tenn. — Thousands of military veterans across the South are waiting to find out if they were exposed to infectious diseases by government clinics that performed colonoscopies and other procedures with equipment that wasn’t properly sterilized.,,Veterans Affairs officials won’t say if mistakes that may have exposed patients to infections at medical centers in Tennessee and Florida and a clinic in Georgia have been discovered elsewhere.

Mar 23, 2009 Vets had colonoscopies with unsterile equipment -By Matt Sedensky - The Associated Press MIAMI — Officials say more than 3,000 patients at a Veterans Affairs hospital in Miami had colonoscopies with equipment that wasn’t properly sterilized.

March 19- FDA ALERT - The FDA is issuing this alert to remind healthcare providers and patients that insulin pens and insulin cartridges* ...are never to be shared among patients. Sharing of insulin pens may result in transmission of hepatitis viruses, HIV, or other blood-borne pathogens. The FDA has received information that insulin pens may have been shared among numerous patients (two thousand or more) in one hospital in the United States from 2007-2009
March 6 Hepatitis C Virus Transmission at an Outpatient Hemodialysis Unit --- New York, 2001--2008 -... negative to anti-HCV positive in a New York City hemodialysis unit Supervisory staff members failed to address these breaches. Many of the direct care staff members were unaware of ...unit's written infection control policies, including those pertaining to cleaning and disinfection. Investigators also noted the lack of a separate clean area for... has 8% risk factor March 5 Columbia County Medical Center In Hot Water State of Georgia officials are taking a look at a local medical center. Workers there may not have followed proper cleaning procedures, which may have placed hundreds of patients in danger.
March 4, 2009 Columbia County Medical Center In Hot Water By Fraendy Clervaud WJBF News Channel 6 Reporter Published: Evans, GA officials.. look at a local medical center. Workers... not have followed proper cleaning procedures. ..1,300 patients of Evans Surgery Center.. received this letter. ..concerns over the sterilization process of endoscopes. 3/4/09 Wash. state senators push for official piercing regulations Eric Gordon Issue: Despite the sordid past of the state of Washington's health regulations in tattoo and piercing parlors, native legislators and members of the industry soon hope to see a change.
Feb 26- Elementary students get tested after sharing needle- they all pricked their fingers with the same lancet, a device that's commonly used by diabetics to draw blood. Feb 17- Blood transfusion fears after haemophiliac contracts vCJD for the ...Daily Mail - UK'Since the risk of vCJD transmission through blood was first considered, ... which saw almost 5000 people infected with hepatitis C...
Feb 15 Neighborhood Healthcare Clinics: Hepatitis C can happen to anyone North County Times - Escondido,CA,USA About 20 to 25 percent of people with hepatitis C have no risk factors, so there may be other ways of transmission we don't know about yet. ... Feb 14 Army Times - News -Tenn. VA clinic warns of infection risk - Army News, opinions ...VA officials also said a problem was found with equipment at an ear, nose and throat clinic at the VA medical center in Augusta, Ga., and 1800 veterans have been notified they may have been exposed to infection there. ... He was awaiting results
Feb 5, 2009 Army medical center gave flawed insulin shots- The Associated Press.. Last week’s discovery that injection pens ...used on multiple diabetics..El Paso medical center contacting patients who may be infected, William Beaumont...The warning covers WBMAC patients who received insulin injections between August 2007 and January 2009....18 months of potentially incorrect use.... Army-wide review found the same pen model was used in nine facilities. Officials said it also may have been used incorrectly at Fort Polk’s Bayne-Jones Army Community Hospital in Louisiana, where 15 or fewer patients were potentially affected.  
Jan. 15 Manhattan Dialysis Center Notifies Patients Of Possible Exposure ... eMaxHealth.com - Hickory,NC,USA- The transmission was identified after routine testing conducted by the facility identified a patient who became infected with hepatitis C while receiving ... Follow up story here http://forums.delphiforums.com/march_on_dc/messages?msg=5066.1 6 January 2009 CDC REVIEW
Nonhospital Health are–Associated Hepatitis B and C Virus Transmission: United States, 1998–2008 ...hepatitis C virus (HCV) from health care exposures has been considered uncommon. However, a review of outbreak information revealed 33 outbreaks in nonhospital health care settings in the past decade: 12 in outpatient clinics, 6 in hemodialysis centers, and 15 in long-term care facilities, resulting in 448 persons acquiring... the putative mechanism of infection was patient-to-patient transmission through failure of health care personnel to adhere to fundamental principles of infection control and aseptic technique (for example, reuse of syringes or lancing devices)...recognized outbreaks indicate a wider and growing problem as health care is increasingly provided in outpatient settings in which infection control training and oversight may be inadequate.

2008

Dec. 2008 Unhygienic barbershops pose health hazard Saudi Gazette - Riyadh,Saudi Arabia “Blood caused by nicks and cuts on a pilgrim’s head is a fertile environment for the transmission of viruses, such as Hepatitis B and C and HIV which causes .  
Nov 2008 Slight fall in caesareans at top hospital
Irish Independent - Dublin, Ireland- The majority of pregnant women diagnosed with Hepatitis C or syphilis in the Dublin city hospital last year were unaware of the infection until they had ...
Nov 2008 Health Professionals At Risk Of Bloodborne Viruses eMaxHealth.com - Hickory, NC, USA 78% of those who had been put at risk of hepatitis C may not have been followed up adequately, potentially leaving some cases of hepatitis C undiagnosed ...
Nov 24, 2008 Healthcare & Waste Disposal Workers: Don't Get Stuck! MarketWatch - USA These accidental exposures can have serious consequences, from the spread...hepatitis C... Nov 2008 9 Diseases You Can Get at the Salon By Cathy Harris (Cathy Harris) The CDC has not published any reports of the transmission of either hepatitis B or C transmission to or from salon workers to date. Healthcare 101 -
Nov 2008 Needles Place Nurses At Risk StaffNurse.com - UK Needlestick injuries place nurses at risk from infections such as HIV and hepatitis C - and as many as a third of nurses reported being frightened this had ... Nov 2008 Patient Safety With Injectables Medscape - USA
... heparin used to flush IV catheters), and unsafe injection practices resulting in disease transmission of hepatitis C and bacterial infections. ...
Nov. 20, 2008 WRHA says 17 people exposed to HIV, hepatitis risk Winnipeg Sun - Canada The exposure risk of infections possibly including hepatitis B and C occurred between May 2007 and last month during the nurse's work with a finger-stick ... Nov. 19, 2008 Working in health care can be risky, study hints Reuters - USA But for women, only death from hepatitis C was more frequent in health care workers ...
Nov. 19, 2008 FDA nixes state appeal to ban multi-dose vials Newsday - Long Island, NY, USA Attorneys for Susan Lewis of North Massapequa, who claimed the department's tardy notification delayed treatment of her hepatitis C, said they will appeal.
Hepatitis C Transmission Not Reduced By C-sections, Says New Study Planned cesarean sections do not help to reduce the chances of a pregnant mother with Hepatitis C (HCV) transmitting the infection to her unborn baby, ...
Nov. 18, 2008 Liver, thyroid cancer rates increasing in Canada: report CBC.ca - Toronto,Ontario,Canada
... it is estimated that about 22 per cent of primary liver cancers are attributable to hepatitis B infection and 60 per cent to hepatitis C infection,
Nov. 15, 2008 Woman who got HIV organ suing
Chicago Sun-Times - United States
BY KARA SPAK Staff Reporter A 33-year-old woman who tested positive for HIV and Hepatitis C after receiving an infected kidney during an organ transplant at ...

Nov. 1, 2008 ScienceDaily Old Blood' Linked To Infection — Blood stored for 29 days or more, nearly 2 weeks less than the current standard for blood storage, is associated with a higher infection rate in patients who received transfusions with the blood... “The results of this study raise questions about current blood storage standards and transfusion practices and suggest additional research is needed in these areas,” said James A. L. Mathers, Jr., MD, FCCP, President of the American College of Chest Physicians.

Oct. 28, 2008 New Report Finds Rising Risk of Infectious Diseases in America MarketWatch - USA... An estimated 3.2 million Americans have hepatitis C infections, costing the country an estimated $15 billion annually in health care costs;

Oct. 28, 2008 Syringe reuse a widespread problem: U.S. expert Jodie Sinnema, edmontonjournal.com EDMONTON - Syringe reuse is a larger problem than once thought... "Injection safety was often thought of as a developing world problem and we kind of took it for granted in the U.S. and other developed countries," said Joseph Perz, who works at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. "But as a result of accumulating evidence from outbreaks and surveys, we are taking a firmer stand on the need for education and firmer standards."

October 28, 2008 Officials start to notify Alberta patients to get tested in dirty syringe scare- HIGH PRAIRIE, Alta. - Health officials in northern Alberta began notifying patients Tuesday to come in for blood tests while community leaders tried to calm nervous and angry residents in a dirty-syringe scare that may affect up to 2,700 people..."There's a lot of panic, a lot of confusion, people trying to find out who needs what tests where...
10-11-2008 Medical staff contract HIV via unsafe occupational practices Viet Nam News - Hanoi, Vietnam- According to a survey ... more than 100 health workers have been infected by HIV due to occupational accidents since the beginning of the year...The HCM City Hospital for Tropical Disease’s Department of Infection Control receives more than 40 HIV-infected patients a day. Oct. 2008 The hazards of blood transfusion in historical perspective- Harvey J. Alter1,*, and Harvey G. Klein1,* ...over the course of almost 3 decades... Retrospective testing showed that only 25% of TAH was hepatitis B–related... 75% of cases tentatively classified as non-B hepatitis ... In 1975, ...NIH discovered the hepatitis A virus (HAV), and we immediately tested stored sera from our non-B hepatitis cases. Surprisingly, not a single case was due to HAV, the only other known hepatitis virus at that time. Hence, the origin of the designation "non-A, non-B hepatitis,"9

October 09, 2008 Hepatitis C Transmission from Botox and Other Spa Treatments- by Nicole Cutler, L.Ac. Since medical spas are offering more treatments involving the use of needles, sometimes without the supervision of a medical physician or properly sterilized equipment, the potential for Hepatitis C transmission is rising... Hepatitis Transmission Dangers- As the number of people realizing they have the Hepatitis C virus continues to rise, so does the concern of how they were infected in the first place. ... The unregulated, burgeoning medical spa industry could be one of the culprits of mysterious Hepatitis C transmission cases.

Oct 2008 IHC patient infects worker- By MARTY SHARPE- An IHC organisation is being prosecuted after one of its workers suffered acute organ failure and needed a liver transplant after contracting hepatitis B from a patient...believed she was immune because she had been vaccinated in 1999 at the company's expense.
Oct 6, 2008 At least 600 people have been tested for hepatitis C in Scotland and Robeson- NC- By Jennifer Calhoun-Staff writer- LAURINBURG - At least 600 people have been tested for hepatitis C following an outbreak linked to a doctor's office ...stemmed from unsafe medical practices associated with a nuclear stress test...While the unsafe medical practices have not been identified, on Aug. 28 the North Carolina Medical Board ordered Block to cease performing invasive procedures at his office. In August, the state Division of Public Health sent letters to 1,200 patients September 2008 Clinical Infectious Diseases;47:627–633 Volume 47, Number 5 - Clinical Infectious Diseases ;47:627–633- Determinant Roles of Environmental Contamination and Noncompliance with Standard Precautions in the Risk of Hepatitis C Virus Transmission in a Hemodialysis Unit- Nosocomial transmission is the second most frequent cause of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection... Blood-contaminated surfaces may be a source of HCV cross-transmission in a hemodialysis unit. Strict compliance with hand hygiene and glove use and strict organization of care procedures are needed to reduce the risk of HCV cross-transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis.
Sep 17, 2008 Patient Contracts Hepatitis-C From Dialysis Center NYC Clinic Shut Down, Nearly 700 Urged To Get Tested For Hepatitis, HIV; Blood Found On Chairs, Machines NEW YORK (CBS) ― An Upper West Side dialysis center was shut down by the state Health Department and hundreds of patients were urged to be tested after at least one patient contracted hepatitis C from treatment at the center.

Ink back flowing at tattoo parlour-Piercing services still on hold-Posted By RAYMOND BOWE-An Alcona tattoo parlour was given a clean bill of health yesterday to resume inking area residents. The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit issued a public warning last month after clients at Adam & Eve Tanning, Tattooing and Piercing were potentially exposed to non-sterile equipment...Sterilization was the issue. "The autoclave had failed

Sep 12, 2008 Report on HIV incidence in the U.S.- By CDC-Subpopulation Estimates from the HIV Incidence Surveillance System --- United States, 2006-CDC has created an HIV incidence surveillance system...The ability to distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection ...first U.S. estimates of HIV incidence based on a biologic marker of recent infection...disease continues to affect the MSM population more than any other in the United States...however, using new diagnoses as a proxy for incidence is complicated by numerous factors...the 22 states account for 73% of all AIDS diagnoses...not be nationally representative. 2008 67 hepatitis B patients sue the state http://www.japantimes.co.jp Kyodo News Damages suits were filed Wednesday by 67 hepatitis B patients, or the next of kin of deceased patients, in district courts in Sapporo, Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima, Tottori and Fukuoka, with the plaintiffs blaming the infections on childhood vaccinations in which the same syringes were used repeatedly. The plaintiffs are seeking a combined ¥2.5 billion in compensation from the state, which they claim was aware as long ago as 1948 that continuous use of the same syringes could lead to infection but neglected to take preventive measures.
 
Sep. 2 2008 NC clinic probed in small hepatitis C outbreak -RALEIGH, N.C. - State health officials are investigating ... seven patients to test positive for hepatitis C. Officials are contacting 1,200 patients who underwent cardiac stress tests within the last 14 months... The cardiac stress test involves injecting a dye into a patient's vein as stress levels in the patient's body are increased. Devlin said officials believe patients transmitted hepatitis C to other patients because they had the same strain. See more on HCV by stress test September 1, 2008 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases HCV May Be Transmitted via Blood-contaminated Surfaces By Liz Highleyman "Nosocomial" transmission in healthcare settings is the second most common route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, after shared use of needles and other drug injection equipment. It is well known that HCV may be transmitted via accidental needle-sticks, but contact with the virus on contaminated surfaces in healthcare facilities may also play a role.
Aug-27 Adam and Eve clients asked to contact health unit- The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit is asking all clients who received tattooing or piercing services at the Adam and Eve Tattooing and Piercing in Innisfil between April 29 and Aug. 21 to call the health unit, as part of an investigation into potential exposure to non-sterile equipment. 08/08 Discarded needles pose low infection risk for youths AAP News (subscription) - USA
Results showed no seroconversions for HBV, hepatitis C virus or HIV six months after injury. The authors concluded that it is reasonable to offer .
Aug. 27 2008 Newest disease-spreading fear: Handcuffs MONTREAL, (UPI) -- A Canadian company warned a national police conference in Montreal that dirty handcuffs can transmit herpes, HIV, influenza and hepatitis B. ...l conference of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police ... Cleaner company... markets a device and chemicals that disinfect handcuffs..."If you go around ...any police officer how often they clean their cuffs, they'll probably say never," ... found viruses and bacteria along with dried blood and skin particles in the hinges...dangerous for the next person to be cuffed but for the officers...The cleaning device creates ultra-high frequency sound waves. 08/27/08 Clovis patients possibly exposed to hepatitis, HIV-Some instruments used last week may not have been fully sterilized. By Barbara Anderson / The Fresno Bee Fourteen Clovis Community Medical Center patients -- some of whom were on the maternity ward -- may have been exposed to hepatitis and HIV last week when doctors used instruments that may not have been fully sterilized.
August 17, 2008 DIRTY DOC A ONE-MAN HEP-IDEMIC By SUSAN EDELMAN- A sloppy city anesthesiologist infected 14 patients with hepatitis B and C - and probably spread the liver-attacking viruses to at least 10 more...Dr. Brian Goldweber used the same syringe to give patients already infected with hepatitis a second dose from anesthesia vials. This "double dipping" contaminated the contents, which he then injected into other patients - spreading the virus, a city Health Department probe found. August 17, 2008 Another View: Yolo's needle exchange program flawed- Matt Rexroad - http://www.sacbee.com/110/story/1161242.html Your recent praise of Yolo County (CA) is appropriate, but not for our needle "exchange" program...we were provided with some startling figures...More than 61,000 needles were passed out to about 150 people ... more than 400 needles per participant. Shockingly, 11,253 of those needles were not returned.
Aug 1, 2008 CDC Updates Guidance for Bloodborne Pathogens After Mass-Casualty Events... These observations support the potential for explosions to result in transmission of infections among persons injured during the event and indicate that emergency responders and health-care providers in the United States need uniform guidance on prophylactic interventions appropriate for persons injured in bombings and other events resulting in mass casualties.  
August 1, 2008 PEDIATRICS Vol. 122 No. 2 August 2008, pp. e487-e492 Pediatric Injuries From Needles Discarded in the Community: Epidemiology and Risk of Seroconversion- ...anxiety exists concerning the perceived risk of transmission of bloodborne viruses after community-acquired needlestick injuries...At 6 months, 189 were tested for HIV, 167 for hepatitis B virus, and 159 for hepatitis C virus. There were... July 25, 2008 HCV-Infected Pregnant Women May Have Worse Neonatal and Maternal Outcomes CME
News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD CME Author: Désirée Lie, MD, MSEd -Hepatitis C virus (HCV)–positive pregnant women appear to be at risk for adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes...a population-based birth cohort study reported in... American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology..."HCV-positive pregnant women appear to be at risk ... indicating that routine HCV screening in pregnant women may need to be reconsidered...
July 25, 2008 Brac Cosmetology Workshop Held- The Department of Environmental Health (DEH) conducted a workshop on Cayman Brac for employees in the cosmetology industry. This includes all hairdressers, barbers, and other cosmetologists... Most cosmetologists and barbers use low lever grade disinfectants which may not kill all the micro-organisms. To be really safe, it is suggested that customers bring their own instruments. July 21, 2008 HBV and HCV infection in Japanese dental care workers www.newsrx.com- Current study results from the report, 'HBV and HCV infection in Japanese dental care workers,' have been published. "Protective measures against occupational exposure to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) must be taken in order to prevent infection in dental care workers. To determine the best way to protect these workers, our study examined viral hepatitis infection in dental care workers in regions with a high prevalence of HCV infections in Japan," scientists in Kurume, Japan report.
Jul-20 2008 CDC, Premier Healthcare Alliance Work to Eliminate Occupational Needlestick Injuries CHARLOTTE, N.C.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--More than 385,000 needlestick and other sharps-related injuries are sustained annually by hospital-based healthcare personnel..."For more than three decades, the CDC has been involved in activities related to sharps injury prevention, including analysis of injuries, surveillance and data reporting, safety device analysis, prevention research, and education and training," said Dr. Denise Cardo, director of the CDC's Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion.  
7/19/2008 Oklahomans join lawsuit against biomedical firm By The Associated Press OKLAHOMA CITY -- At least a dozen Oklahomans have joined a lawsuit against a New Jersey biomedical company they allege sold tissue from dead bodies without permission or proper medical screening.

 

July 17, 2008 The New York Times- Problems Persist With Red Cross Blood Services For 15 years, the American Red Cross has been under a federal court order to improve the way it collects and processes blood. Yet, despite $21 million in fines since 2003 and repeated promises to follow procedures intended to ensure the safety of the nation’s blood supply, it continues to fall short....Various records of F.D.A. inspections... highlight poor follow-up, including falsified records.
Jul 14, 2008 Govt names 1,825 hospitals on tainted coagulant fears The Yomiuri Shimbun- The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry announced Tuesday the names and addresses of 1,825 medical institutions that might have administered blood coagulation factor VIII and IX products to patients that are not hemophiliacs... people becoming infected with the hepatitis C virus through the administration of tainted blood products... this time including heated blood products in its investigation. July 03, 2008 News & Star News Number of teenagers being treated for hepatitis has quadrupled By Steph Johnson- The number of teenagers being sent out of county to be treated for Hepatitis B and C has more than quadrupled over the last year... Since 2005, there has been a 28 per cent increase in Hepatitis C diagnosis for adults
June 20, 2008 aidsmap.com Michael Carter- HIV and hepatitis coinfection in Africa: ,,,studies provide conflicting prevalence data... None of the hepatitis C cases observed in Africans were attributed to injecting drug use. Instead, the investigators suggested that “exposure to contaminated blood transfusions, medical equipment or needle-stick injuries in healthcare settings, including traditional healers could be responsible.” June 19, 2008 World Science staff- Faked research data surprisingly common, survey suggests- Scientific misconduct, notably including falsification of data, may be far more common than suspected, according to the authors of a new survey of more than 2,000 scientists.
June 18, 2008 CDC Early Release- False-Positive Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Tests --- New York City, 2005--2008- The cause for the episodic increases in false-positive oral fluid tests has not yet been determined. NYC DOHMH has again suspended the use of oral fluid testing in STD clinics, and finger-stick whole-blood testing is the only rapid HIV test being used in this setting. These findings underscore the importance of confirming all reactive HIV tests, both from oral fluid and whole-blood specimens June 13, 2008 Health risks of piercings - Piercings are three times more common in women- “One in four body piercings goes wrong”, reports The Independent today. The newspaper goes on to say that body piercings, which have become “an essential fashion accessory”, carry significant risks, according to the first study to examine complications arising from this body art.
Jun. 12, 2008 Retesting of blood samples finds risk of spreading HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis through transfusions and medical malpractice- After rescreening samples from 7500 donors, the results showed a clear and present danger that blood contaminated with HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis may be entering into the countries' blood supply. The findings are reported in "Blood Services in Central Asian Health Systems: A Clear and Present Danger of Spreading HIV/AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases," ...in collaboration with US CDC and WHO-EURO... Selected EPA-registered Disinfectants. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), (2008, June 30). Includes lists of EPA registered anti-microbial products to assist in choosing the appropriate decontaminant.

Jun. 7, 2008 Mortality Due to Hepatitis C in the U.S.: Has the Worst Passed? By Liz Highleyman ...Based on these findings, the researchers suggested that previous forecasts projecting that HCV mortality would continue to increase well into the second decade of the current century might be incorrect.

Jun. 1, 2008 Hiroshima hospital admits reusing blood meters The Yomiuri Shimbun-...Needle-equipped blood meters were reused in taking blood samples from 1,434 people... "... Although the hospital changed needles after every use, the area around the needle was not changed and was reused after alcohol sterilization... As the hospital had reused the instruments for a long time before the notification,"
May 29, 2008 ScienceDaily- Diabetes Doubles Liver Cancer Risk For Patients With Advanced Hepatitis C- Patients who have chronic hepatitis C with advanced fibrosis have twice the risk of developing liver cancer if they also have diabetes. May 27 2008- J Infect Dis. -Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- Specific Immune Responses of Long-Term Injection Drug Users Frequently Exposed to HCV. Injection drug users (IDUs) who successfully clear hepatitis C virus (HCV) have a reduced risk of developing chronic reinfection, despite their continuing exposure to the virus.
2008-05-23 Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission- Author: Muhammad Idrees and Sheikh Riazuddin Credits/Source: BMC Infectious Diseases 2008, 8:69... specific objective of this study was to find out the frequency of various HCV genotypes present in well-characterized Pakistani HCV isolates and their possible routes of contamination... More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery that is very common in this country. May 16, 2008 / 57(19);513-517 Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infections Attributed to Unsafe Injection
Practices at an Endoscopy Clinic --- Nevada, 2007 MMWR
- CDC- Inappropriate reuse of syringes on individual persons and use of medication vials intended for single-person use on multiple persons was identified through direct observation of infection-control practices at clinic
05/16/2008 CDC: Syringe reuse linked to hepatitis C outbreak By SCOTT SONNER Associated Press Writer RENO, Nev.—A hepatitis C outbreak was caused by workers improperly reusing syringes and medicine vials at a Las Vegas clinic, federal health officials said Friday...Since 1999, the CDC counts 14 hepatitis outbreaks in the U.S. linked to bad injection practices 05/15/2008 Hepatitis cases prompt federal recommendations By BRENDAN RILEY Associated Press- They're among about 400 former patients of the center who tested positive. Officials have determined the other patients could have contracted the virus through other means, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, organ transplants or kidney dialysis, receiving blood clotting agents before 1987, or sexual contact with a person with hepatitis C.
May 15, 2008 New York State HCV Patient safety bill would publicize doctors' names
Newsday.com BY RIDGELY OCHS Gov. David A. Paterson introduced ...give the state more authority in health investigations and, for the first time, make public names of doctors under scrutiny. The bill follows the case of Dr. Harvey Finkelstein...require every medical student to complete infection control training and show proof of it...how to prevent hepatitis C transmission, not just hepatitis B and HIV...Commissions a study on the viability of restricting the use of multiuse medicine vials and requiring the use of "disposable medical equipment" engineered for single use.
May-13-2008 OAK BROOK, Ill. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Contact: Anne Brownsey abrownsey@asge.org 630-570-5635 ...updated infection control guidelines... an endoscopy-related infection might occur ...measures to prevent such infection, including endoscope reprocessing, antibiotic prophylaxis, and protection of endoscopy personnel....The single best protection against patient-to-patient transmission...is stringent reprocessing of endoscopes after use, with careful adherence to the “Multi-Society Guidelines for Reprocessing Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopes” issued in 2003. ...personnel may facilitate transmission ... if they fail to carefully adhere to general infection control principles. ...appropriate aseptic techniques and safe injection practices ... reuse of syringes and the use of contaminated multiple dose drug vials have been linked .... Such practices should be avoided, and single use drug vials are recommended.
Possible reuse of insulin pen prompts medical scare BY RIDGELY OCHS | ridgely.ochs@newsday.com Nassau University Medical Center, concerned about possible reuse of insulin pens in more than one patient, said Wednesday it will be sending letters to up to 185 diabetes patients, urging them to be tested for hepatitis C, hepatitis B and HIV. The East Meadow hospital...
May. 02, 2008 Las Vegas Review-Journal- Quality consultants, clinic, drugmaker sued in outbreak "They gave them the Good Housekeeping seal of approval, and off they went," said lawyer Will Kemp, who represents Brunson... filed lawsuits Thursday against the.. company that inspected the clinic and the makers of the anesthesia used during medical procedures. Nevada Health District has connected to unsafe injection practices at the Endoscopy Center of Southern Nevada,

 
April 29, 2008 Doctor tied to hepatitis cases settles lawsuit BY MICHAEL AMON Michael.amon@newsday.com ...Dr. Harvey Finkelstein, the Dix Hills physician ...put thousands of patients at risk by reusing syringes... infected in Finkelstein's office. ...used a syringe multiple times...contaminating multidose medicine vials... the source of injections...More
Apr 24, 2008 Officials say 10,000 more at risk in hepatitis outbreak
The Associated Press ...another 10,000 people...exposed to hepatitis C at an outpatient medical clinic in Las Vegas...
brings to 50,000 ..might have been infected .. through the Endoscopy Center of Nevada.
4-23-08 Contaminated blood inquiry launched
An independent public inquiry is to be carried out to discover why people were infected ... through contaminated blood...
were given contaminated blood in the 1970s and 1980s...calling for an inquiry into how this happened for more than 15 years.
Apr 23, 2008 High Hep C infection among immigrants in New York... Intramuscular injections, and blood transfusions were the only variables that were significantly associated with Hepatitis C virus infection..."These infections resulted from inadequately sterilized medical equipment and blood transfusions."

 
Apr 8, 2008 Sun editorial: Local action not enough Congress should find out why clinics have ignored warnings about syringe reuse... transmission of the disease through unsafe injection practices was well-known..“It is entirely unacceptable and extremely dangerous to reuse ... syringes on multiple patients,” a medical doctor wrote in the newsletter.
Apr 4 2008 Source: Tallahassee.com [edited] The Florida Department of Health is waiting on the results of lab tests to determine what caused an outbreak ...could be the use of a single dose medication vial for multiple patients. Apr-2-2008 Vegas Health Agency Reports Big Rise in Positive Hepatitis Tests (AP) - Health officials are reporting a threefold increase in positive tests ...typically fields 20 to 40 positive hepatitis C reports a day, but has been getting up to 150, officials said
April 07, 2008 Medical News: ESRD NKF: HCV Outbreaks at Dialysis Units Linked to Outmoded Infection Control By Charles Bankhead, MedPage Today Reviewed by Zalman S. Agus, MD; Emeritus Professor University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

"we're finding that outbreaks continue to occur
despite the recommendations for enhanced infection control."
March 28, 2008 lansing.injuryboard.com Dr. Robert Stokes Used Unsanitary Procedures And Exposed Patients To Infection...a Grand Rapids dermatologist... also reused medical equipment, such as scalpels, syringes, and sutures, among others, without properly sanitizing the equipment... used a sanitizing solution to try and clean the medical equipment, this only decreased, but did not eliminate, the chance of disease transmission. Initially, nearly 5,000...were notified...increased to over 13,000. Of those 13,000, at least 12 have been diagnosed with Hepatitis C.
March 26, 2008- Blood tests suggested in hepatitis scare NEWPORT NEWS, Va. - A Virginia hospital has asked more than 300 former patients to come in for blood tests because a nurse suspected of infecting patients with hepatitis in Texas worked there last year.

Vaccine. 2008 Mar 4;26(10):1344-52. Epub 2008 Jan 18. Preventing contamination between injections with multiple-use nozzle needle-free injectors: a safety trial.- The study ended early because the protector cap needle-free injector (PCNFI) failed to prevent contamination in the first batch tested (8.2% failure rate).

Mar 25 2008 Dramatic Rise In Hepatitis C-Related Deaths In The United States With Greatest Risk To Middle-Aged Patients: - Hepatitis C-related deaths in the United States increased by 123 percent from 1995 through 2004, the most recent year for which data are available. Mortality rates peaked in 2002, then declined slightly overall, while continuing to rise among people 55 to 64 years old. These findings appear in the April issue of Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD).

March 25, 2008 Emotions erupt at public hearing
Reno Gazette Journal - By ANJEANETTE DAMON...Evelyn McKnight..."Sadly, today, we hold our restaurants to higher standards than our doctors offices," she said. "People ask me what they should do to protect themselves..."I tell them to demand...one needle, one syringe ...one vial... It's that simple.
April 2008; "Changing Trends in Hepatitis C-Related Mortality in the United States, 1995-2004. "Hepatology; 10. 1002/hep. 22165 ; Dramatic Rise In Hepatitis C-Related Deaths In The United States With Greatest Risk To Middle-Aged Patients- Hepatitis C-related deaths in the United States increased by 123 percent from 1995 through 2004...The most dramatic age-specific increases were observed among 45 to 54 year olds ... 376 percent, and 55 to 64 year olds ... 188 percent.  
March 26, 2008 BY DELTHIA RICKS | delthia.ricks@newsday.com Hepatitis C cases expected to soar in a decade ... New York is in the vanguard of a rising epidemic expected to peak in 2015 when cases of the infection will increase fourfold nationwide, driving a 528 percent jump in the need for liver transplants and a 223 percent leap in the liver-related death rate, experts underscored yesterday. Mar 22, 2008 Indian clinics uncover high rate of hepatitis C By DIANE COCHRAN Of The Gazette Staff- An epidemiological study conducted at two Indian Health Service clinics in Montana uncovered a hepatitis C infection rate that is six times higher than is found in the general population...6 percent hepatitis C infection rate among women who went to the clinics for prenatal care.

Mar 20, 2008 Digestion- Medical Author- Q&A by Dr. Marks- Is it correct that the hepatitis C virus cannot survive for more than two hours outside the human body? In blood--inside or out of the body--the virus can live for weeks, months, and even years

 
Mar 18, 2008 Hepatitis likely did not stay in Vegas By Helen Altonn haltonn@starbulletin.com Anyone who was treated at the Endoscopy Center between March 2004 and January should be tested .. says a Hawaii infectious disease specialist... Dr. Alan Tice, expressing concern... investigation ... hepatitis C cases were traced to the clinic, which had been reusing syringes and vials of medicine for about four years.
Mar 16, 2008- By Ashley Powers, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer March 2008 Governor Gibbons Fires Head Of The State Licensing Bureau This came after investigators found staff at the Shadow Lane office reused syringes on patients, putting thousands at risk for viruses.
 
Mar 2008 Am J Infect Control.;36(2):123-8.
Variation in interpretation and counselling of blood exposure incidents by different medical practitioners. "The assessment of blood exposures significantly differs depending on the medical background of the counsellor handling the incident, leading to remarkable inconsistencies in the response to prevent the transmission of bloodborne pathogens "
3/15/2008 RENO GAZETTE-JOURNAL ANJEANETTE DAMON Gov. Gibbons lashes out at news media...Reacts to health clinic scare ... blamed the media for hysteria surrounding the recent health clinic scare and defended the endoscopy center responsible for... hepatitis C through unsafe syringe use...State health inspectors conducting a statewide inspection blitz of Nevada’s 50 surgical centers in the wake of the Las Vegas case have found similar unsafe procedures at half a dozen other clinics. March 9, 2008 Nurse accused of infecting Army patients with Hepatitis C- EL PASO (AP) - Federal officials said today that a former Army hospital employee is accused of infecting at least three patients with Hepatitis C.
nMarch 08, 2007 Can Saliva Transmit Hepatitis C? Measuring only about 50 nanometers in diameter, Hepatitis C is an extremely small virus. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter; 200,000 Hepatitis C viruses placed end to end would only measure a single centimeter. Smaller than the wavelength of visible light, viral particles have no color. In those who are infected, Hepatitis C may produce approximately one trillion new viral particles every day. Mar 6, 2008 MILWAUKEE New owners take Barbicide out of the barbershop- 'Are you blue?' is a fair question that anybody should ask when they go into those facilities," Murphy said.....What is your disinfection in your salon?
March 5 2008 Govt to probe fibrin-linked infections The Yomiuri Shimbun- A private hospital... found that 64 of 628 patients it treated with fibrin glue, a surgical adhesive linked to the transmission of the hepatitis C virus, became infected with the disease... March. 3, 2008 Hepatitis scare in Vegas may be ‘tip of iceberg’ CDC head says outbreak may represent safety problems in other U.S. clinics WASHINGTON - An outbreak of hepatitis C at a Nevada clinic may represent “the tip of an iceberg” of safety problems at clinics around the country, according to the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

2008 Mar Am J Infect Control. ;36(2):123-8. Variation in interpretation and counselling of blood exposure incidents by different medical practitioners. Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, BACKGROUND: Blood exposure incidents pose a risk for transmission... Despite several national and international guidelines, counsellors have often different opinions about the risks caused by these incidents. Little is known about the consequences of these variations in risk assessment... remarkable inconsistencies in the response to prevent the transmission of bloodborne pathogens

February, 2008 Committee of Ten Thousand Vol. 10 No. 2 COTT JUDICIARY Supreme Court Protects Medical Device Manufacturers- ...allowed FDA approval of medical devices to be sufficient grounds to block efforts to sue their manufacturers... Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) said The Supreme Court’s decision strips consumers of rights they’ve had for decades. This isn’t what Congress intended, and we’ll pass legislation as quickly as possible to fix this nonsensical situation.”
Feb. 27, 2008 The Southern Nevada Health District..40,000 patients of a Las Vegas Endoscopy Clinic ...at risk ..for Hepatitis C and other diseases. ... large-scale patient notification that was just announced moments ago. The joint investigation identified the re-use of syringes (not needles) and the use of single dose vials of anesthesia medication on multiple patients as the potential sources of contamination. Feb 26, 2008 OSHA Cracks Down on Citations, Probloodborne.com Offers Solution- Grand Rapids, MI 2/26/2008 10:50 PM GMT (FINDITT)- OSHA delivers up to 70,000 dollars in fines for facilities not in full compliance with bloodborne pathogens standard. Personnel can now conveniently and securely complete bloodborne pathogens training compliant with OSHA healthcare regulations on-line avoiding the inefficiency and scheduling hassles of on-site training. Note: $19.95 and 10 questions later, you're "Certified"?
Feb. 25, 2008 Hepatitis C Danger In Your MD's Office? Outbreaks Of Dangerous Infection Coming From An Unlikely Place NEW YORK, CBS News medical correspondent Dr. Emily Senay reports. "...In the end, 99 people were infected, the largest outbreak of its kind in North American history. The cause: Nurses were discarding used needles, but were reusing the syringes, thereby passing the infection from patient to patient...Since 1999 ..."  

February 2008 Northern Virginia Personal Injury Lawyer- Doctor Caught Reusing Syringes- It has been discovered ... committing medical malpractice by reusing syringes .. obstetrician-gynecologist reused syringes while administering flu ... In that case... notified approximately 11,000 patients of his reuse of syringes. As a result, thousands of patients were exposed to blood-borne pathogen infections, resulting in transmission of hepatitis C. Read more

February 15, 2008 MMWR CDC- Notice to Readers: Medical Equipment Malfunctions Associated with Inappropriate Use of Cleaning and Disinfecting Liquids.... (FDA), in collaboration with CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, issued a public health notification alerting health-care providers and the public about malfunctions caused by improper use of cleaning and disinfecting liquids.* Read more

January 30, 2008 Health commissioner wants ban on multidose vials ridgely.ochs@newsday.com State Health Commissioner Richard Daines... called on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to eliminate the manufacture and distribution of medications in multidose vials, the source of hepatitis C transmission... Read more

January 2008 NIDA Home > Publications > Director's Reports
Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Noninjecting Drug Users in New York City- T
he prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among noninjecting drug users has been reported to be higher than in the general population, but the reasons for this observation remain unclear. Read more

January 2008 WHO > Programmes and projects > Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) > Diseases covered by EPR > Hepatitis

... the only means of protection are the implementation universal precautions and safe injection practices. Read more

January 2008 Fibrin glue used for burns, facelifts...Fibrin glue, a surgical adhesive linked to the transmission of the hepatitis C virus, was used in a wide variety of areas...used on about 79,000 patients...made from a combination of substances including HCV-tainted fibrinogen manufactured by the defunct Green Cross Corp. mainly between 1981 and 1987 Read more

Also see 4/29/2005 Hepatitis C scare halts use of surgical adhesive- ...fibrinogen, which is found in human blood, and is culled from blood supplies in the United States. click here

Source: The Lancet, transmission of hepatitisC virus associated with fibrinogen treatment

January 16th, 2008 Another Long Island Doctor Commits Malpractice By Reusing Syringes- It’s been revealed that another Long Island doctor has reused syringes when administering injections to patients. Dr. E. Jacob Simhaee, a Manhasset-based obstetrician-gynecologist reused syringes when administering flu shots to at least 36 patients last fall. ...Late last year, it was learned that Dix Hills doctor Harvey Finkelstein had infected several of his patients with blood borne diseases after reusing syringes.  
January 4, 2008 Hepatitis patient sues, blames dental implants-FROM STNG WIRE REPORTS- A woman who underwent dental implant surgery ...suing the makers of products used in the surgery, after she learned the products had been recalled and she had contracted Hepatitis C. Read more
 
January 10, 2008 Guardian Unlimited-British soldiers in contaminated blood scare- ...soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan.. given transfusions of contaminated blood after the US military failed to follow its own testing procedures... Read more

2007

12/26/2007-5 infected with hepatitis C after undergoing heart test at hospital-..A municipal hospital's practice of reusing a disposable device for monitoring blood pressure during cardiac catheter tests resulted in five people developing hepatitis C as a result of the checkup.
 
Breaches in safe-injection practices CDC recommendations. ..Fourteen patients reported breaches in safe-injection practices by the practitioner, including 1) failure to practice hand hygiene, 2) failure to prepare the skin with an antiseptic, 3) failure to wipe vials with alcohol before injection, and 4) failure to wear gloves. Of 11 patients who could recall, all reported use of a new needle; however, nine patients reported use of a multidose vial.
December 2007- GRAND RAPIDS - Six patients of former dermatologist Dr. Robert Stokes ...while 8,500 more will be notified that they may be at risk... Dec 2007 Source: The Lancet, Vol. 370, 15 ... attention to 2 articles in the ...The Lancet recalling the transmission of hepatitisC virus associated with fibrinogen treatment...associated with hepatitis C virus infection
December 21, 2007 Non-Hospital RNs Face High Risk of Needlesticks- MedPage Today- Nearly 9% of registered nurses who work outside the hospital had an accidental needlestick... a rate of 13.8 per 100 person-years... non-hospital RNs may have more than 145,000 needlesticks in the U.S.
 
December 24, 2007 Hospital waste spreading hepatitis-Hepatitis-C is rapidly spreading among large number of young garbage pickers/ scavengers

Fri 7 Dec 2007- HEPATITIS C, HEMODIALYSIS UNIT - SPAIN (BARCELONA)-Three children between 3 and 12 years of age have contracted hepatitis C...were receiving treatment in the hemodialysis unit. A failure in the hygiene protocol, ...thus far "we have not been able to establish the exact cause" leading to the chain of infection.

 

Dec 2, 2007 Our Unsanitary Hospitals
By Betsy McCaughey These infections are caused largely by unclean hands, inadequately cleaned equipment and contaminated clothing that allow bacteria to spread from patient to patient, says McCaughey. In a study released in April, Boston University researchers
PMID: 13130210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE Nosocomial risk factors of hepatitis C infection. A multicenter study in a hospital-based population]... Logistic regression analysis showed ...endoscopy were found as independent risk factors for HCV infection... No other risk factor for nosocomial or iatrogenic transmission was identified...other healthcare-related procedures may partly explain HCV transmission. This emphasizes the need to reinforce compliance with standard precautions of hygiene. Dec 1, 2007 Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2006 Nov;6(4):13-7. Hepatitis C infection in risk groups.-Results of this study confirm that general screening for HCV infection is recommended in risk groups for HCV infection in order to identify to prevent and to treat it.
 

 

2007 CDC. Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings 2007. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2007. Available at . 2007 CDC. Steps for evaluating an infection control breach. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC
November 28, 2007 NIOSH Addresses Body Art Hazards... has created a new topic page titled "Body Art," after numerous meetings--including OSHA--to help identify the hazards and bloodborne pathogen risks tattoo artists and body piercers experience while working Use of Blunt-Tip Suture Needles to Decrease Percutaneous Injuries to Surgical Personnel: Safety and Health Information Bulletin. OSHA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2008-101, (2007, October). Supersedes NIOSH Publication 2007–132.
November 20, 2007 Hepatitis Found Again Among Doctor's Patients NY Times By PAUL VITELLO
Published: Nassau County health officials yesterday reported another positive test for hepatitis among the patients of an anesthesiologist on Long Island whose faulty infection-control practices put hundreds of people at risk.
November 20, 2007- Hospital admission is a relevant source of hepatitis C virus acquisition in Spain. PMID: 17998149 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] The most relevant risk factors registered during the 6-month period preceding the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C were: hospital admission in 73 (67%) cases
 
November 13, 2007 Doctor reused needles, put patients at risk n michael.amon@newsday.com
About 630 patients of a Nassau County physician who reused needles and syringes have been notified that they are at risk for.. hepatitis C ... two of the doctor's patients have already contracted hepatitis C. The physician, an anesthesiologist
Sept./Oct. 2007 Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo vol.49 no.5 São Paulo Sexual transmission of hepatitis C ...chances of sexual transmission are low or almost null,
August 2007 Investigation of hepatitis C transmission in a UK haemodialysis unit: possible role of Schribner shunt vascular access device . Journal of Hospital Infection , Volume 66 , Issue 4 , Pages 391 - 392D . Webster , K . Jeffery , K . Cann , C . Teo , S . Ngui , P . Mason , I . Bowler May 01, 2007 VIETNAM EXPERIENCE In 1964, a program designed to protect all military personnel stationed in Asia against hepatitis was instituted. A 16-percent solution of human serum gamma globulin in a dose of 0.05 ml/lb was used.
April 17, 2007 FDA Seizes All Medical Products Media Inquiries: Heidi Rebello, 301-827-6242 Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA FDA Seizes All Medical Products From N.J. Device Manufacturer for Significant Manufacturing Violations...compromise the safety and effectiveness of the products, particularly their sterility. April 26 2007 ORIGINAL PAPER Vox Sanguinis Volume 93 Issue 2, Pages 159 - 165 Published Online: 2 Jun 2007 © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Legal, financial, and public health consequences of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus in persons with haemophilia- ...two- to eightfold more persons with haemophilia in the eight countries contracted HCV vs. HIV from contaminated blood products during the 1980s... clinical impact among persons with haemophilia of HCV contamination of the blood supply in the 1980s was larger than the impact of HIV contamination of the blood supply during this time-period, the policy response was smaller.

Apr-9-2007 Doc says unsafe syringes responsible for HCV Liver diseases, hepatitis C assuming alarming proportions in Pakistan: warns health experts .. speaker...warned that Hepatitis C ...assuming alarming proportion in Pakistan with each passing day.

April 7 2007 OBITUARIES
Steven G. Economou: 1922 - 2007
Surgeon, writer, doodler...chairing the surgery department at what is now Rush University Medical Center ...From 1983 to 1993, he was chairman of Rush's general surgery department...Dr. Economou had suffered from hepatitis C, which he probably contracted in the operating room, and underwent a liver transplant about 12 years ago,
Requirements for safety-engineered sharps for stockpiled pandemic influenza vaccines and pre-filled syringes. OSHA Standard Interpretation, (2007, March 2).  

April 3, 2007 Dental Patient-to- Patient Hepatitis ALENXANDRIA, VA -- -- Researchers have documented .... transmission between two patients at a dentist's office ...has long been a concern in dental infection control. The blood-borne pathogen is hardy, persisting in dried blood on surfaces for a week or more. It can be present even in the absence of visible blood.

Apr 2, 2007 U.S. Hospital Errors Continue to Rise (HealthDay News).. Ten of 16 types of patient-safety incidents increased over the three years of the study, by an average of almost 12 percent. The greatest increases were in post-operative sepsis (about 34.3 percent); post-operative respiratory failure (18.7 percent); and selected infections due to medical care (about 12.2 percent).
March 22, 2007 The Edmonton Journal Sterilization room shut down 'It only takes one cell to give you hepatitis' Surgical instrument sterilization is serious business... St. Joseph's General Hospital, the sterilization room was shut down...scopes and tools hadn't been properly cleaned. "If you don't take all this apart and clean it...cooking for years,"...searching through patient files back to 2003, to identify which patients...exposed to the blood-borne pathogens... March-2007 NY Statewide Testing for HCV Epidemic - Health officials are urging residents to get tested for Hepatitis C, saying it's become a statewide epidemic. According to the New York Post, cases of the virus have doubled in the last five years...tip of the iceberg...the city had more than 14,000 cases of Hepatitis C in 2005. Last year's data isn't available yet, but officials are predicting a big hike.
Friday, 30 March , 2007 Investigation into Sterilisation Hepatitis scare prompts investigation into sterilisation Reporter: Brendan Trembath MARK BANNERMAN: The last thing you'd expect when you go to the doctor for a vitamin injection is to end up with hepatitis C. But that's exactly what's happened ...Public health officials are concerned at the news and they've advised that another 100 people who've been to the clinic may be at risk. March 08, 2007 Can Saliva Transmit Hepatitis C- by Nicole Cutler, L.Ac. People with chronic Hepatitis C are advised not to share toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers or other personal articles that may have potentially been in contact with their blood. While there is very little emphasis on saliva...under the right circumstances there is some evidence to the contrary:
· The person with the virus must have a viral load over one million.· Both parties involved have gum disease.
Mar 5; 2007 Am J Ind Med. 50(4):285-292 Potential work-related exposures to bloodborne pathogens by industry and occupation ..but it lacks details on the circumstances of the exposure and other relevant issues...CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that each industry group has unique needs that should be addressed. March 2007 Hep C testing beginning on patients Hep C testing beginning on patients-Testing for hepatitis C has begun on the patients of a...surgeon who contracted the disease...after a routine exam in February, was confirmed to have hepatitis C...Appointments are set for 150 people this weekend.
 
March-2007 Sweet wants more screening of doctors -..chief health officer would like to see health-care workers in high-risk jobs voluntarily screened for infectious diseases such as hepatitis C.
Dr. Lamont Sweet told CBC News Tuesday .. he is encouraging all at-risk health-care workers to get tested.
February 7, 2007 Prostate biopsy between 1989 and 2003FDA News FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE P07-14 Media Inquiries: FDA Press Office, 301-827-6242 Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA- Custom Ultrasonics Signs Consent Decree- Company agrees to stop manufacturing devices that wash and disinfect endoscopes until it corrects problems... agreed to stop manufacturing and distributing its System 83 Plus Washer/Disinfector and the System Plus 83 Mini-flex Washer/Disinfector until...compliance with FDA's Current Good Manufacturing Practice requirements of its Quality System (QS) regulation.
June. 15, 2007- 3 hepatitis C cases tied to N.Y. anesthesiologist- Authorities urged 4,500 people who were treated by an anesthesiologist to get tested for hepatitis C, saying three patients may have been infected as the doctor gave them anesthesia.

Jun 07- Injection Behavior, Not Sexual Contact, Accounts for Couples' Hepatitis C Risk NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Injection behavior, rather than sexual contact, accounts for the clustering of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in heterosexual couples, according to a report in the June 1st issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

June 1, 2007- AIDS Info at a Glance- FDA Approves New Test to Screen for HIV and HCV in Donated Blood...The CDC reports that 25% ...HIV infection are also infected with HCV. That percentage increases to 50-90% in HIV-infected injection drug users. 03-23-2007 Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB) (NIOSH
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have jointly published a Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB) (NIOSH 2007-132 and OSHA SHIB # 03-23-2007) designed to help protect surgical personnel from needle stick injuries while using suture needles.
May 2007 Source: SR International, Radio Sweden- It has been revealed that thousands of people... and the risk has been known for years. ... up to 23 000 people who might have the liver disease should be traced....In the past, it was thought that it might be unethical to contact patients and tell them they were at risk.. May 2007 The Capital Development Authority's Directorate of Health Services (DHS) have diagnosed 10 barbers with HIV/AIDS and 52 with hepatitis in the city during the last 3 years, Daily Times has learned.
May 2007 Infection Control- Author: Patti V. Hoffman, RN, BS, MPH National Center of Continuing Education, Inc. Transmission-Based Precautions-Transmission-based precautions were designed for patients with suspected or documented infection with highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogens requiring additional practices beyond standard precautions. Apr 2007 Advice to dentists on instrument use- Health Protection Report Vol.1 No.16- Advice for dentists on single-use of endodontic instruments for all patients to reduce the risk of secondary transmission...

2006

June 19, 2006 Prostate biopsy between 1989 and 2003 FDA Public Health Notification: Reprocessing of Reusable Ultrasound Transducer Assemblies Used for Biopsy Procedures(You are encouraged to copy and distribute this information)..the lumen of a needle guide of an ultrasound transducer assembly was found to be soiled. The alert provided recommendations on reprocessing that brand of transrectal ultrasound transducer, which is widely used..... November 2006 Journal of Viral Hepatitis 13(11): 775-782. 15 independent risk factors for HCV By Liz Highleyman a significant proportion of hepatitis C patients (20%-40%) have no identified route of transmission. In conclusion, the authors wrote, ".our data incriminate previously unidentified risk factors
Date: 11 Jun 2007 Reuter's Alert Net- 18 hospitals and 39 drug trading companies were found to be using the
fake human albumin,
which led to huge profits because of its low production cost.
June 2, 2006 MILWAUKEE - More than 22,000 veterans who underwent prostate biopsies at veterans' hospitals across the country are being warned that improperly sterilized equipment may have exposed them to deadly viruses...inadequacies with the biopsy cleaning procedure at 21 medical centers in 18 states, plus Puerto Rico.

 

August 2006
Hepatitis C infection from Contaminated Heart Stress Test
…..Sixteen cases were identified; all underwent myocardial perfusion studies on October 15. Cases had perfusion studies performed at 3 unaffiliated clinics. The median age of cases was 63 years and 14 (88%) were male. Fifteen cases were symptomatic, including 11 who had jaundice….The findings from this and other recent investigations demonstrate that bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted in any setting where blood exposures occur and aseptic technique is compromised.

2006 Hepatitis C virus infections from a contaminated radiopharmaceutical used in myocardial perfusion studies. 2006 JAMA 2006;296:2005--11.Patel PR, Larson AK, Castel AD, et al The findings ... demonstrate that bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted in any setting where blood exposures occur and aseptic technique is compromised... The findings from this investigation, as well as other reported outbreaks, underscore a need for heightened awareness and renewed vigilance.
CDC. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis---United States, 2006. MMWR 2008;57(No. SS-2). Alter MJ. Healthcare should not be a vehicle for transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol 2008;48:2--

 

 
May 2006 VA biopsies could have infected men Nashville center alerts 413 on prostate test; 16 hospitals nationally involved The Tennessean-By CLAUDIA PINTO Staff Writer- More than 300 Tennessee veterans could be at risk of infections, including HIV, after improperly sterilized equipment might have been used on them during their prostate biopsies at the VA hospital in Nashville.
 
May 21 2006 Source: Toronto Globe and Mail online, Toronto: hepatitis prompts warning at Scarborough Hospital...public health authorities have warned 400 Scarborough Hospital dialysis patients ...risk of hepatitis infection ...not to share their toothbrushes or razors with family members...cluster of hepatitis-positive dialysis patients identified this month [May 2006]..." said Dr Michael Finkelstein...


Non-Drug Related Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus
2003-2005


The Hepatitis C epidemic is discovering what was. In 1988, 242,000 Hepatitis C infections were reported annually. These high figures were reported throughout 1970's & 1980's. Since 1989, and mandatory heating or washing of blood products, the annual number of new infections declined 80 % by 1998. Universal precaution became mandatory in 1996. But, preconceived ideas and notions have stifled awareness to the many transmission methods, discovered yearly, for this disease. CDC-Hepatitis C infections were reported annually.

2005

11/15/05 Laboratory Evaluation of Endoscope Water Bottles By Paul J. Pearce, PhD, Nova Biologicals, Inc...Test results show that 92 percent of the endoscope water bottles tested were contaminated ... included known human pathogens...Test results demonstrate that a high percentage of the water container bottles tested failed to meet CDC and FDA criteria for high level disinfection.(4) improperly processed endoscope water bottles are routinely used in the United States by practitioners conducting endoscopic examinations. Pruss-Ustun A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48:482–490. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20230. [PubMed]
Nov 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics Transmission of Hepatitis C Through Swapping Body Jewelry-By Daniel, A Rebecca; Sheha, Thomas she routinely shared her pierced body jewelry with a female friend. only 3% to 5% of American patients are infected with genotype 3a hepatitis C virus. Click here American Journal of Public Health says that if health leaders don’t make significant strides in crafting HCV education and prevention programs, there could be nearly 200,000 U.S. deaths from the disease by 2019 and nearly $13 billion in health care costs.
11/07/05 Risk Factors for Perinatal Transmission of HCV and a Higher Incidence of Infection in Male
than in Female Infants By Ronald Baker, PhD
In multivariate analysis restricted to HCV RNA-positive mothers, membrane rupture >/= 6 h and internal fetal monitoring were associated with transmission of HCV to infants. Click here
October 26, 2005 Md. General To Repay $55,029 To Medicaid Hospital Settles Over Unverifiable HIV Test Results- Maryland General sent out hundreds of potentially incorrect AIDS and Hepatitis C test results last March, leading to Congressional hearings into the hospital's quality. Click here
Oct. 26, 2005 FDA warns about unscreened human tissue The Associated Press... the firm illegally bought body parts from funeral homes to sell to tissue processors... sold human tissue to processors for eventual implantation into people because it may not have been properly screened for infections. Click here Oct. 2005 "This is a low estimate," said Dr. Weiss, because less than half of the surgical cases were tested. Review SAN FRANCISCO - John Hopkins Surgeons Warned! ....study presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons. 33% of surgical patients had Hep C. "This is a low estimate," said Dr. Weiss Click here
Oct. 2005 FIVE MILLION AMERICANS INFECTED WITH THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS: A CORRECTED ESTIMATE AASLD Nov 2005 Brian R. Edlin, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY…of these, approximately 3.4 million are currently infected (chronic HCV)… Click here Oct. 2005 Professor: Most people with hepatitis C don't know it- By Beverly J. Lydick/Tribune staff- Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus aren't even aware of it, a University of Massachusetts Medical School professor testified Friday in Dodge County District Court. Click here
 
10/3/2005 Tattooing Is an Independent Risk Factor for HCV Infection on the El Paso, Texas-Mexico Border The role of non sterile tattooing practices in HCV transmission merits additional examination in regard to precise risk settings, frequency and mechanisms of infection.” Click here
 
Sept 21, 2005 VA dental clinic warns patients some instruments were not sterilized By Karen Kane, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette A patient of a dental clinic at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Butler filed a legal claim .. some clinic instruments were not sterilized between uses. ..shut down the clinic between March and May, and in June, sent letters to 2,000 patients who had visited it from 1999
 
Sept. 1, 2005 Bethesda, Maryland Most chronic hepatitis C sufferers will develop cirrhosis in later life-... nearly inevitable.. 80 percent ... will develop cirrhosis Click here

22/09/05 London law firm to probe blood scandal By Evelyn Ring A LONDON-based law firm has been engaged by the Government to investigate the role played by US-based pharmaceutical firms in the blood contamination scandal. Click here
 

Sep 2005 Fears hep C rife in jail population
By Tanya Nolan for AM A prisoner advocacy group says its research shows more than one third of the nation's prison population now has hepatitis C Click here
Sept 2005 Hospital loses benefits appeal
By ROBIN LORD STAFF WRITER
A state Appeals Court ... favor of a former Cape Cod Hospital emergency room technician, ..denied workers' compensation benefits ...after she became infected with hepatitis C through a needle stick at work. Click here
Sept 15, 2005 The Journal of Infectious Diseases
;192:1088-1092-Reemergence of Hepatitis C Virus after 8.5 Years in a Patient with Hypogammaglobulinemia: Evidence for an Occult Viral Reservoir Click here
Sept 8, 2005 Tattoo business patrons contact health department By KRISTIN BUEHNER, Of The Globe Gazette People who have had tattoos or body piercing at Freeky Inks Tattoos are urged to get tested for HIV and Hepatitis B and C, blood-borne pathogens that can be transmitted if instruments contaminated with blood are not sterilized or used appropriately between clients. Click here
Sep 2005 'Addict' doctor is accused of killing with dirty needles From Graham Keeley in Barcelona-63 patients died, 276 people, including 17 children, over a ten-year period....denies that he had a heroin addiction and claims....caught the virus through contact with infected patients. Click here
Sep 2005 Source: Reuters Hepatitis C threatens new generation..... found antibodies to hepatitis C ...,in 18.1% .. residents and 22.1% .. army recruits. The number .. rises with age ...41% of persons over 50 ...The vast majority must represent sporadic transmission. Click here
Sep 15 2005 HIV warning for patients treated by bogus dentist MORE than 600 patients may have been put at risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis after they were treated by a bogus dentist...Click Here Aug. 24, 2005 Hospital Asks Patients to Get HIV Test
LEESBURG, Va. - Inova Loudoun Hospital is asking 144 patients who underwent endoscopic exams Click here
August 12, 2005 WHO INTRODUCES A WEBSITE ON THE SAFE MANAGEMENT OF HEALTHCARE WASTE ..Poor management of HCW exposes healthcare workers, waste handlers, and the community to infections, toxic effects, and injuries. Click here Aug 2, 2005 LAS VEGAS Local cities facing estimated $2.8 billion liability over next 30 years- State laws requiring compensation for public safety workers who develop ...hepatitis C have local governments scrambling to identify how to pay for what is expected to be a multibillion-dollar liability over the next 30 years. Click here
July 20 Hepatitis C a Greater Threat to Healthcare Workers Than HIV ATLANTA (Reuters Health) - The risk that healthcare workers will become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) following an accidental needlestick is 20 to 40 times greater than their risk of HIV infection, according to data presented here at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Disease. Click here July 12,2005 Doctor sanctioned for reusing syringes
PROVIDENCE, R.I. (AP) The state Department of Health is sanctioning a doctor it says reused syringes -- putting patients at risk.... for injections of vitamin B-12...sent advisories to 669 Click here
Volume 19 Issue 7 Page 792 - July 2004 Ethnic and cultural determinants & risk Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 19 (7), 792–798. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2004.03381.x Ethnic and cultural determinants influence risk assessment for hepatitis C acquisition "Risk factors in SEA patients were injection therapy, dental therapy and surgery (89%, 70% and 38%, respectively). 06/13/2005 SANTA ROSA, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- Hepatitis C Infection Claims Against Santa Rosa Doctor Gain Momentum With Filing of Second Lawsuit Contaminated Equipment May Have Infected Five Patients of Gordon Medical Associates With Hepatitis C in January 2005 Click here
June 10 2005, REDNOVA NEWS Patient-to-Patient Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus- vulnerable patients with cancer observing poor infection-control techniques by a health care professional attending their central venous catheters. Click here June 7, 2005-Annals of Internal Medicine | Volume 142 Issue 11 | Pages 898-902 An Outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus Infections among Outpatients at a Hematology/Oncology Clinic Of 613 clinic patients were probably contaminated when syringes used to draw blood from venous catheters were reused to withdraw saline solution. Click here
Characteristics and Health of Caregivers and Care Recipients --- North Carolina, 2005  

Baltimore, MD, May. 4 (UPI) -- U.S. researchers said nearly 40 percent of surgeries may involve patients who have ...hepatitis, placing surgeons at risk of contracting the diseases. click here

May 04, 2005 Source: Newswise Protecting healthcare workers from infection As many as 87 percent of surgeons will receive an injury that breaks the skin click here
4/29/2005 Hepatitis C scare halts use of surgical adhesive The Yomiuri Shimbun One of the basic ingredients in Takokonbu is fibrinogen, which is found in human blood, and is culled from blood supplies in the United States. click here April 28, 2005 Philly.com by ssnyder@phillynews.com. An uproar ensues over needle-stick- Parents notified children stuck by pin. click here
Apr 22, 2005 83 patients alerted after Hepatitis C fear Hastings Observer, UK - ...warned they may have contracted Hepatitis C from a Hastings gynaecologist between 1983 and 2001 click here
 

Apr 20 2005 2,000 women patients in hepatitis test warning By Deborah James Daily Post Staff ...cases going back 23 years, .... underwent invasive surgery like hysterectomy operations in two Liverpool hospitals click here

Apr 09, 2005 Hepatitis warnings go out to patients By Sarah Arnquist FAIRFIELD - Kaiser Permanente mailed letters to 400 female patients from its Vacaville and Vallejo facilities, suggesting they get tested for hepatitis after finding sterilization problems with medical instruments dating back four years. click here According to a 2005 study published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine overall, 16,000 hepatitis C, 66,000 hepatitis B and 1,000 HIV infections may have occurred in 2000 worldwide among healthcare workers due to their occupational exposure to injuries, they said.

Incidence of acute HCV, USA click here

4/7/05 El Paso Times- Months after first contacting 250 people who could have been infected with hepatitis C during surgery at Beaumont Army Medical Center last year, physicians now want to test an additional 912 patients. click here

April 7-NEW ORLEANS, /PRNewswire/ -- Survey of AORN Congress Attendees Reveals Double Gloving Occurs 42 Percent as Much as It Should,-Although they are "very concerned" about the need to double glove as a means of protection against potential exposure to blood and body fluids during surgery, operating room nurses...report.. they only double glove 42 percent as much as they think they should. click here The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Texas: implications for future health care-KANTHI YALAMANCHILI, MD, SHERIF SAADEH, MD, RITA LEPE, MD, AND GARY L. DAVIS, MD.... number of cases appears to have surpassed previous projections utilizing this and similar models click here
A study in New York City has found a higher than expected prevalence of hepatitis C infection among non-injecting drug users The findings, published in the May 1 issue of Substance Use & Misuse, may indicate that use of needles and syringes is not the only drug-related risk factor for HCV. click here Barriers to hepatitis c transmission within breathing systems: Efficacy of a pleated hydrophobic filter Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research A large pore electret filter did not provide a barrier to the passage of HCV....... essential .... humidified breathing circuit,.. be evaluated in a ... to prove their efficacy. click here
 
Brief Communication: Sewer Workers: Occupational Risk for Hepatitis C — Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature- SEWAGE WORKERS are at high risk of exposure to both infectious and toxic agents click here NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The findings of a long-term study of injection drug users... These results "underscore the importance" of nucleic acid screening of blood...an "alarming" 34 percent became infected despite risk reduction counseling click here
April 1, 2005 Colonoscopy Patients Put at Infection Risk By Katrina Woznicki , MedPage Today Staff Writer Reviewed by Zalman S. Agus, MD; Emeritus Professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. MONROEVILLE, Pa....tracking down some 200 people The patients involved got colonoscopies click here Maryland probe fails to discover source of hepatitis C infections After a five-month probe, Maryland health officials still do not know how a vial of testing solution became contaminated with hepatitis C virus and infected 16 people click here
March 31, 2005 Monroeville hospital urges 200 colonoscopy patients to get checked .. ..underwent colon examinations that they may be at risk for infection because the colonoscopes ..not .. adequately cleaned. click here March 31, 2005 Forbes Issues Warning on Faulty Disinfection Nearly 70 patients have contacted the hospital so far click here
NY Prison health care is killing inmates By MARY BETH PFEIFFER An estimated 10,000 inmates suffer from Hepatitis C; another 6,000 are infected with HIV. Complaints about substandard care are legion. click here Mar 24 2005 French Woman May Have Had Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in 1971- "like finding a case of autopsied AIDS back in the 1700s." click here
March 11, 2005 Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Among Persons Undergoing Blood Glucose Monitoring in Long-Term--Care Facilities The findings underscore the need for education, training, adherence to standard precautions 03/04/05 William Beaumont Army Medical Center- Update on hepatitis C investigation The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in confirmed that all patients were infected from the same source. All patients with the virus are receiving medical care, and our investigation continues into the source.
3/16/05 When Does Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Occur? 31% were positive in the first 3 days of life.... “These results suggest that at least one third and up to a half of infected children acquired infection in utero. click here 03/17/2005 The Ugly Truth Behind Beautiful Nails -- Doctor's Advice for Healthy Feet BEVERLY HILLS, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- The risks are severe and even include the blood-borne viral diseases hepatitis B and C. clcik here

March 2005 Association Between Smallpox Vaccination and Hepatitis C Antibody Positive Serology in Pakistani Volunteers... from 1964 to 1982 in Pakistan, may be responsible for the national surge in hepatitis C viral infection, perhaps because of repetitive use of vaccination devices without proper sterilization or to contaminated vaccine contents.

February 24, 2005 Patients told of HIV infection fears AMSTERDAM — .... informed patients who underwent endoscopic examinations recently that faulty equipment .... asked 57 patients to come in for testing click here

Jan 31, 2005 Local hospital snafus hint at a larger problem
By A.C. Thompson Late last year health care giant Kaiser Permanente was forced to reveal an embarrassing and potentially lethal situation that had developed at its Redwood City hospital. T
he hospital was apparently using dirty endoscopes
1/26/04 Division of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Boston, MA.Children with Hepatitis C An estimated 240,000 children in the United States have antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 68,000 to 100,000 are chronically infected with HCV. Click here

Barriers to hepatitis c transmission within breathing systems: Efficacy of a pleated hydrophobic filter G. LLOYD .....breathing circuits contaminated with body fluids may provide a route of nosocomial patient-to-patient transmission of the hepatitis C virus.. A large pore electret filter did not provide a barrier to the passage of HCV. click here

January 14, 2005 Professor warns that pilgrimage is health risk
MUSLIMS taking part in the pilgrimage to Mecca face serious health risks, a city doctor warned today."....He said that pilgrims also need to be aware of the risks of blood-borne infections such as HIV and hepatitis B and C, especially as one of the rites of Hajj is for men to have their head shaved. Link
January 8, 2005 Hepatitis C seen as health threat on Long Island BY DELTHIA RICKS STAFF WRITER Link
The growing prevalence of hepatitis C on Long Island could pose a greater threat than the emergence of HIV two decades ago, a health expert said Friday.
4 Jan 2005 The Baltimore Sun, Maryland: hepatitis C fatality in Baltimore shrouded in mystery-As thousands of other patients do every year, a patient walked into a Glen Burnie cardiology clinic....traced the patient's infection to a single vial of technetium-99m, a radioactive isotope injected into the bloodstream during stress tests and other routine diagnostic procedures. click here

2004

The Hepatitis Report By Michael Marco
Natural History, Clinical Manifestations, and Prognostic Indicators of Disease Progression and Survival of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection
Approximately 20% of newly individuals have symptoms that arise before the seroconversion to anti-HCV occurs (antibody-positive) (Koretz 1993). The average time from exposure to seroconversion is approximately 50 days, although it can be as long as nine months (Tremolada 1991; MJ Alter 1992).
2004 Study: Analysis of a hepatitis C screening for US Veterans Dept. of Preventive Medicine, HSC Level 3, Rm. 086, SUNY at Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036, USA. In the multivariate model developed... service during the Vietnam era, tattoo, and a history of abnormal liver function tests were independent predictors of HCV infection. Our data support considering a more targeted screening approach that includes five of the 11 risk factors.

12/11/04 Hospital seeks patients exposed to hepatitis C By The Associated Press (12/11/04 - EL PASO, TX) - With eight cases of hepatitis C confirmed, officials at Beaumont Army Medical Center are looking for 60 others who had surgery

12/8/2004 FDA PRODUCT RECALL
Red Blood Cells. Recall # B-0189-5. 1636571, 1636572, 1636575.
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Department of the Army, Madigan Army Medical Center , Tacoma , WA , by facsimile dated November 17, 2002 . Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Red Cells, incorrectly tested for HIV/HCV by NAT, were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 24 units. DISTRIBUTION WA.

2004 No Evidence of Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C among Monogamous Couples: Results of a 10-Year Prospective Study The risk of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was evaluated among 895 monogamous heterosexual partners of HCV chronically infected individuals in a long-term prospective study, which provided a follow-up period of 8,060 person-years.

Gloveless Healthcare Worker Gives Hepatitis C to 5 Patients Phlebotomy Today -Claiming that gloves diminished the sense of touch he needed for his work, an anesthesiology technician has been found to have infected five hospital patients with the deadly hepatitis C virus.

2004 Dialysis-linked hepatitis C spread alarming About 2.2 percent of patients who underwent dialysis in 2001 were infected with the hepatitis C virus

Fri Dec 10, Md. Hepatitis C May Be From Medical Tests By KASEY JONES, Associated Press Writer
BALTIMORE - A company that makes substances
used in some common medical tests has suspended operations

12/8/2004 FDA PRODUCT RECALL
Red Blood Cells. Recall # B-0189-5. 1636571, 1636572, 1636575.
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Department of the Army, Madigan Army Medical Center , Tacoma , WA , by facsimile dated November 17, 2002 . Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Red Cells, incorrectly tested for HIV/HCV by NAT, were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 24 units. DISTRIBUTION WA.
Read more: False results with NAT

FDA PRODUCT RECALL
Red Blood Cells. Recall # B-0188-5.
CODE Units 1636581, 1636583, 1636573, 1636585, 1636587, and 1636557.RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Department of the Army, Madigan Army Medical Center , Tacoma , WA , by facsimile dated November 17, 2002 . Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Red Cells, incorrectly tested for HIV/HCV by NAT, were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 6 units.
DISTRIBUTION WA Read more: False results with NAT

October 1, 2004 Fremont hepatitis suits will go to trial in Omaha BY ANGIE BRUNKOW WORLD-HERALD STAFF WRITER
"Nebraska health officials
have linked 99 cases of hepatitis C

2004 Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, (Vol. 25) (No. 4) 284-290 Assessment of a novel approach to evaluate the outcome of endoscope reprocessing.
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center...portable luminometer system was capable of detecting microbial and cellular contamination of flexible endoscopes following high-level disinfection and reprocessing.

September 24, 2004-Hospital: Patients May Have Been Infected By Equipment New tests show a number of patients tested positive for hepatitis C

September 11, 2004- The Oregonian-Hermiston woman sues hospital, Red Cross Saturday, …claiming she contracted hepatitis C after receiving a blood transfusion during an operation in July 2002.

Sept 2004
CA- Medical Clinic Notifies Patients of Possible Hepatitis Exposure During Exams…An equipment malfunction at Kaiser Permanente of Redwood City, CA may have exposed 2,116 patents to Hepatitis C, a disease which attacks the liver. From Oct 30, 2003 to May 3, 2004, equipment used in gastro-intestinal exams was not properly sterilized

September 13 2004 Hepatitis B Vaccine May Be Linked to MS By Salynn Boyles WebMD Medical News Reviewed By Brunilda Nazario, MD on Monday,

Know the Myths about Hepatitis C
Dr. Ken Eden I would like to give another perspective on Hepatitis C, its treatment, the need for "informed consent" in discussing treatment options with patients, and why the makers of Hepatitis C drugs have discouraged such discussion.
August 2004 Digestive Liver Diseases 36(8): 547-50. Laboratory of Epidemiology, Reported risk factors are useless in detecting HCV-positive subjects in the general population. Conclusions Reported risk factors are useless in detecting hepatitis C virus-positive subjects in the general population

08/04/04 Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis C in Patients on Hemodialysis Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is very common among end-stage kidney disease patients on hemodialysis, but its natural history is not known.

Aug. 28, 2004 Last cases against Palo Alto lab worker dismissed Associated Press PALO ALTO, Calif. - Two people who believe they were infected with HIV and hepatitis C by a lab worker who reused needles, plan to appeal …discovered she was HIV-positive after Elaine Giorgi drew her blood in 1997 and 1999..

*July 29, 2004
http://www.prweb.com/news/20040729/index.htm
NEW - Hepatitis C disinfectant just introduced in the Salon industry, could mean the end of O'L BLUE! Copy
2004 55th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases- David Bernstein, MD- Hepatitis C -- Current State of the Art and Future Directions CME- - Prevalence and Natural History- Trends in Hepatitis C Prevalence in the United States - ...One of the major shortcomings of this study (NHANES III survey) is that it reports on the prevalence of the hepatitis C antibody, which may indicate previous exposure or active disease. This study does not report on disease prevalence, as prevalence of hepatitis C infection is defined by the presence of hepatitis C viral RNA in serum. Only 148 of the 15,079 participants had serum available for hepatitis C viral RNA testing, making any statements regarding disease prevalence, and not potential exposure to the disease, invalid.

July 17, 2004 Hepatitis C Outbreak Adds a New Woe to Drug Centers By ALAN FEUER Published: … diagnosed in 114 of Palladia Starhill's 400 patients.

7-27-4 Report Says 195,000 Deaths Due To Hospital Error WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- As many as 195,000 people a year could be dying in U.S. hospitals because of easily prevented errors, a company said on Tuesday in an estimate that doubles previous figures. Lakewood, Colorado-based HealthGrades Inc. said its data covers all 50 states and is more up-to-date than a 1999 study from the Institute of Medicine that said 98,000 people a year die from medical errors.

7/2004 The Patient Protection Office, for Madrid Community, has opened an investigation in order to determine how 7 cancer patients contracted hepatitis C virus June 30, 2004
Federal Judge Dismisses Civil Case Against Maryland General Hospital Promises To Comply With Industry Standards

June 27, 2004 The New York Times As Doctors Write Prescriptions, Drug Companies Write Checks By GARDINER HARRIS ...recently reported that Schering Plough is under federal and state investigation for payments made to providers to encourage them to treat patients with Hepatitis C. Those checks and others, some of them said to be for six-figure sums, are under investigation by federal prosecutors in Boston...included paying doctors large sums to prescribe its drug for hepatitis C and to take part in company-sponsored clinical trials click here

June 27, 2004 MANHASSET'S NORTH SHORE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL Unclean record of disinfecting BY DAWN MACKEEN STAFF WRITER When North Shore University Hospital admitted earlier ……. compromised 177 patients' health

June 16, 2004
N.Y. Patients May Have Been Exposed to HCV
The Associated Press

2004 COURTHOUSE - A former Montgomery County sheriff's deputy was diagnosed with Hepatitis C 18 months ago while still on the job. And, he is convinced he contracted on the job.

June 2004 Sunnybrook faces $220M lawsuit
KAREN PALMER PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTER
revealed that more than 800 men were potentially exposed to blood-borne diseases during routine screening tests

June 2004
Eighth hospital discloses instruments not disinfected

251 York Central outpatients affected Ear, nose and throat clinic involved GABE GONDA STAFF REPORTER

May 10 2004 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 18;101(20):7705-10. Epub .Neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in immune globulins derived from anti-HCV-positive plasma. Gammagard, prepared from plasma from which units containing anti-HCV had been excluded, transmitted HCV to recipients.... The results provide an explanation for the mechanism by which the safety of this product was compromised. Click here Comstock RD, Mallonee S, Fox JL, et al. A large nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis C and hepatitis B among patients receiving pain remediation treatments. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:576--83.

Parents' Blood May Not Be as Safe as Other Donors Mon May 6,10:24 AM ET BALTIMORE (Reuters Health) - Surprisingly, blood donated by parents... The researchers found that 9 of every 100 parents--or about 8%--had given
blood that was unsafe to transfuse into their children. "That's quite high," Wong said.
1853.1

May 20, 2004 Screening for infectious diseases now required The Associated Press WASHINGTON - People who donate sperm, eggs and other commonly transplanted tissues will have to be screened for infectious diseases like blood donors are, under long-awaited federal rules announced Thursday

April 9, 2004 The Japan Times: Dialysis-linked hepatitis C spread alarming- About 2.2 percent of patients who underwent dialysis in 2001 were infected with the hepatitis C ... study ... conducted at dialysis facilities nationwide. ...52,000 people receiving dialysis ... tested negative for hepatitis C.. end of 2000, roughly 1,100 positive 2001. ... survey suggests several thousand are infected each year with hepatitis C at facilities. Click here 2004 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in United States Correctional Institutions- Frederick L. Altice, MD and R. Douglas Bruce*, MD *Yale University School of Medicine Epidemiology of HCV in Correctional Settings….30% of all released prisoners having HCV infection,
2004 Assessment of a novel approach to evaluate the outcome of endoscope reprocessing. The portable luminometer system was capable of detecting microbial and cellular contamination of flexible endoscopes following high-level disinfection and reprocessing. 2037 Virus Alert: a chairside system for evaluation of the risk of HCV infection G. GAMBARINI, Italy
Objective: Cross-infection in dentistry is a serious concern, because of the risk of contamination of materials, instruments and dental units.
July 2004 Int Conf AIDS. Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada Comparison of the effectiveness of bleach in preventing the transmission of HIV, hepatitis b, and hepatitis C.
 

April 4 2003- Tattooing a Major Route of Hepatitis C Infection, UT Southwestern Researcher Finds Source: UT Southwestern Medical Center DALLAS -, - Getting a tattoo could be a key infection route for hepatitis C,

Apr 2, 2004 5- Freeze-Drying Can't Remove Virus from Tissue Transplants By Karla Gale NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Freeze-drying does not inactivate viruses from bone and connective tissue, according to investigators at Michigan State University in East Lansing, suggesting that this technique does not improve the safety of tissue used for transplants.

OCCUPATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS AFTER A PUNCH. Awareness of the risk of occupational transmission… this is the first proven case of ….HCV ….that occurred as the result of a blow with the fist.

April 2, 2004
S.F.'s homeless with HIV plagued by hepatitis C virus -- few treated Carl T. Hall, Chronicle Science Writer - UCSF and San Francisco General Hospital, is among
the first to document how widespread hepatitis C infections have become

March 20, 2004 HIV test glitch could affect thousands BALTIMORE, Maryland (AP) -- Thousands of patients could have received questionable HIV test results "Every single test that came off that machine should be in question, from its first day in use,"-- click here February 27, 2004 Science Teens require surgery after piercing infections By Emily Nalven-...A 2002 study of 454 university students found that half had piercings and a quarter had tattoos. Nearly 20 percent of those who had piercings reported a medical complications due to the procedure..
2004 Hygiene risk for dental patients
Andrew Denholm political correspondent
dental …. risk of infection from blood diseases such as HIV and hepatitis because of poor standards of hygiene….calling for urgent action to improve basic sterilization techniques.
Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP), (2004, February 12).

2003

Medical & Dental Offices: A Guide to Compliance with OSHA Standards. OSHA Publication 3187-09R, (2003). Also available as a 787 KB PDF, 2 pages. Provides a glimpse of the most frequently found hazards in medical and dental offices. Disposal of Contaminated Needles and Blood Tube Holders Used for Phlebotomy. OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB), (2003, October 15). Also available as a 37 KB PDF, 4 pages. OSHA has concluded that the best practice for prevention of needlestick injuries following phlebotomy procedures is the use of a sharp with engineered sharps injury protection (SESIP), (e.g., safety needle), attached to the blood tube holder and the immediate disposal of the entire unit after each patient's blood is drawn
Job Safety and Health Quarterly (JSHQ). (2001, Summer), 4 MB PDF*, 44 pages. Fleming, Susan. "Preventing Needlesticks." Pages 12-13. New rules affirm the need for safer devices to protect workers. "Highlights of OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogens Standard Revision." Page 41. A toolbox discussion of the revision to OSHA's bloodborne pathogens standard.

 

Securing Medical Catheters. OSHA Fact Sheet, 353 KB PDF*, 2 pages.

12/04/2003 12:00 AM Jury sides with hepatitis C victim By Guillermo San Antonio Express-News Contreras Jury finds negligent for infecting Deborah Anderson, who received a series of permanent coloring touch-ups to her lips at the studio, mostly in 1999.

December 13, 2003 Drug Companies Fund Patient Advocacy Groups Sydney Morning Herald, December 13, 2003 " "Pharmaceutical companies are pouring millions of dollars into patient advocacy groups ....used a public relations firm to set up an expert medical board to persuade people they needed hepatitis A and B vaccinations. The company was not interested in raising awareness about hepatitis C because it did not sell a vaccine for the disease.

11/22/2003
FedEx worker decries handling of bloody box By Todd C. Frankel Post-Dispatch The body parts were en route
from Donor Referral Services in Las Vegas

11/21/2003 Immigration And Disease: It's Enough To Make You Sick By Robert Klein Engler 2,200 illegal aliens daily 5 percent in TB cases in the state between 2000 and 2001, and 57 percent of the increase occurred in northern Virginia itself.. Tuberculosis, five years ago, was almost nonexistent in the USA.
11/22/2003 VA’S NATIONAL HEPATITIS C PROGRAM- Veterans may have been exposed to the virus through a bleeding wound, needle injury, intravenous drug use, tattoos, intranasal cocaine use or through vaccinating air guns, that might well have inadvertently spread droplets of blood from one person to another. Model Plans and Programs for the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens and Hazard Communications Standards. OSHA Publication 3186-06N, (2003). Also available as a 521 KB PDF, 29 pages. Includes a model exposure control plan that meets the requirements of the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard and can be tailored to meet the specific requirements for an establishment.

2003 RCMP Blood Task Force lays Criminal Charges… criminal negligence causing bodily harm… The Armour Pharmaceutical …. Delaware Corporation, .. with three counts of criminal negligence causing bodily harm and one count of common nuisance by endangering the public under the Criminal Code of Canada, as well as one count of failure to notify under the Food and Drugs Act Regulations.

October 27, 2003 Dallas Morning News Soldier contracts Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (the human form of Mad Cow Disease)-was it From the fetal calf serum used in vaccines? ... "In 2001, certain vaccine manufacturers admitted that they were using fetal calf serum ... at high risk for mad cow disease, in spite of years of warnings from the Food and Drug Administration. The vaccines include those to prevent polio, diphtheria, tetanus and anthrax."
Oct. 13, 2003
Risk of HCV-Infected Allografts "Serious Public Health Threat" Peggy Peck (San Diego) — Limitations in donor screening combined with outmoded donor tissue sterilization procedures suggest that about 300 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected musculoskeletal tissue specimens are distributed by U.S. tissue procurement centers each year.
September 26, 2003 Transmission of Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Outpatient Settings- New York, Oklahoma, and Nebraska, 2000 - 2002 MMWR (Mortality & Morbidity Weekly) CDC, September 26, 2003 / 52(38);901-906--investigation of each outbreak suggested that unsafe injection practices, primarily reuse of syringes and needles or contamination of multiple-dose medication vials, led to patient-to-patient transmission.

9/2003 Mount Pleasant by Stacey Range Randy
Vallad didn't know what prison doctors did. At least not until he accidentally saw one line at the bottom of a sheet in his prison medical records: "Hepatitis C - Positive." turns out the 43-year-old from Mount Pleasant had tested positive not once but four times between September 1998 and June 2001 while imprisoned for running from police. ….convinced she contracted the virus from Vallad during his parole.

September 12, 2003 PRODUCT Source Plasma. Recall # B-0264-5. RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Aventis Bio-Services, Inc., Davenport , IA , by letter dated September 12, 2003 . Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Source Plasma, collected from a donor who had a tattoo applied within 12 months of donation, was distributed.

Ann Ig. 2003 Sep-Oct;15(5):685-91 An outbreak of hepatitis C virus in a haemodialysis unit: molecular evidence of patient-to-patient transmission 8/2003 Associated Press Lab glitch produces false blood test results FARGO - A laboratory glitch was to blame for blood test results that falsely indicated about 40 area donors were infected with HIV or hepatitis C, United Blood Services officials say. click here
Read more: False results with NAT
July/August 2003,ADULT INFECTIOUS DISEASE NOTES Volume 14, Number 4: 192 Nosocomial transmission of bloodborne viruses from infected health care workers to patients- B Lynn Johnston MD1, John M Conly MD2- The risks to health care workers (HCWs) of occupationally-acquired infection .... Evidence ..suggests that the risk of infection is increased where the level of viremia is high, Click here June, 2003 Key measures still overlooked in endoscope reprocessing - Viewpoint Healthcare Purchasing News, unpleasant episodes, ranging from tuberculosis and hepatitis C transmission have been reported for years.
June 25, 2002 Ford Hospital warns patients about hepatitis Testing instruments possibly contaminated BY PATRICIA ANSTETT AND HUYI JIN ELIZABETH KIMFREE PRESS MEDICAL WRITERSHenry Ford Hospital in Detroit is warning 268 patients who underwent a common sinus, nose and throat test to be evaluated for hepatitis B and C infections 2003 TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS FROM A PATIENT TO AN ANESTHESIOLOGY ASSISTANT TO FIVE PATIENTS Breaches of infection control are therefore associated with a high risk of the transmission of blood-borne pathogens.

06/20/03
Rep. Jackson Lee Praised for Seeking GAO Probe of Hepatitis C

June 2, 2003--Lieff Cabraser Announces Filing of Claims In U.S. District Court On Behalf Of Hemophiliacs Abroad Infected With HIV And/Or HCV Due To Virus Contaminated Blood Products complaint alleges that these companies intentionally sold blood factor that they knew or should have known to be infected with the agents that cause AIDS and HCV. "This is a worldwide tragedy,"

2003 Kaiser patients at risk for hepatitis They're advised to have a precautionary' test By Nicole Neroulias, STAFF WRITER REDWOOD CITY -- A faulty disinfection process might have exposed more than 2,100 Kaiser Permanente Medical Center patients to hepatitis

April 11, 2003 Red Cross Agrees to Fines for Safety Violations By Todd Zwillich WASHINGTON (Reuters Health) - The American Red Cross could face substantial fines for future lapses in blood safety practices

April 10, 2003 Theory Links Hepatitis C
to Polio Syringes in Italy Thu 02:41 PM ET
By Rossella Lorenzi FLORENCE, Italy (Reuters Health) - Poorly cleaned glass syringes used to administer the polio vaccine in the 1950s and 60s could have spread the hepatitis C virus from person to person in southern Italy, researches from Italy's National Cancer Institute suggested this week.

2003 100 women at risk after GP blunder UP TO 100 women have been put at risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis after they were given cervical smear tests using unsterilised equipment.

February 25, 2003 “I don’t feel the training I received was insufficient, closed last week after an internal audit.SUSAN TOM Statesman Journal Documents show … failing to take adequate steps to prevent contamination of the blood … during collection; failing to ensure … donor is .. failure to maintain … records; and failure …. freezer’s temperature recorder against a thermometer.
25 February, 2003,Aids crisis: Are dirty needles to blame? The spread of HIV infections in Africa may be more closely linked to unsafe medical care than previously thought.

 

2003 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE STUDY LINKS HEPATITIS C SPREAD IN EGYPT TO INJECTION CAMPAIGNS Researchers ... concluded that a high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Egypt can be traced to mass treatment campaigns ...hepatitis C virus was transmitted through the contamination of reusable needles and syringes...

 

2003 Patients were exposed to a potentially life-threatening disease after being injected with a used needle. A former nurse anesthetist at Norman Regional hospital is to blame. In all, 80 patients were infected with Hepatitis "C"

2/8/2003 2 Docs Spurn Hepatitis C Test...Draft report cites St. Francis surgeons-Twol heart surgeons refused to be tested for hepatitis C, despite a request by state officials investigating the source of the disease in one of their patients... cardiothoracic/vascular surgery at the Roslyn hospital, Dr. Paul S. Damus, nor his assistant surgeon agreed to be tested...St. Francis Hospita...also called The Heart Center

Krause G, Trepka MJ, Whisenhunt RS, et al. Noscomial transmission of hepatitis C virus associated with the use of multidose saline vials. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:122--7.

H.R.73.IH the Comprehensive Hepatitis C Health Care Act was introduced on January 7, 2003 Sec. 1720F. Hepatitis C testing and treatment ... (A) each veteran who served in the active military, naval, or air service during the Vietnam era or who is considered to be `at risk,' . Exposure to Blood: What Healthcare Personnel Need to Know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Infectious Diseases, (2003, July), 363 KB PDF, 10 pages

2003
Wicomico investigate backboard sanitation allegations against PRMC
By Deborah Gates Daily Times Staff Writer SALISBURY -- Maryland …returning unsanitized ambulance equipment to crews that transport patients to the hospital.

2003 Gaps HCV Testing & Care in VA System "Testing, Referral, and Treatment Patterns for Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection in a Cohort of Veterans with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection" Excerpts from: Clinical Infectious Diseases;36:1039-1046 "In the VA system HIV care providers are not testing all their patients for HCV…..
2002
   

Biomedical waste handler jailed By BILL TORPY The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

March 28, 2002 Doctor Called Likely Source of Hepatitis in Patients-By BRUCE LAMBERT State health officials said yesterday that they planned to track down and urge testing of up to 3,000 patients who may have been exposed to potentially fatal hepatitis while undergoing operations by an infected cardiac surgeon on Long Island.
 

FYI-A federal inspection of a Wyeth Pharmaceuticals plant NEWARK, N.J.(AP) A federal inspection of a Wyeth Pharmaceuticals … numerous quality-control ..The Star-Ledger of Newark reported Sunday. The Food and Drug Administration report detailed sloppy operating procedures, dirty work areas and instances of contamination at a New York plant.

Recommendations for Preventing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus to Patients During Exposure-Prone Invasive Procedures Exposure-Prone Procedures …Despite adherence to the principles of universal precautions, certain invasive surgical and dental procedures have been implicated in the transmission four hospitals, one or more percutaneous injuries occurred among surgical personnel during 96 (6.9%) of 1,382 operative procedures

December 30 2002 Risky blood collection allegations By Gerard Ryle A Federal Government inquiry.. told that its own Health Department may have allowed blood plasma to be collected from drug addicts, prostitutes and criminals. The Red Cross and the Health Department ..... followed the lead of the United States' Food and Drug Administration in allowing hepatitis C-infected plasma to be collected December 30, 2002 Gov't: Red Cross Did Not Probe WASHINGTON - The American Red Cross received reports that 134 people, including one who died, got hepatitis B after blood transfusions, ….latest in a series of revelations about safety violations that have plagued the Red Cross for more than 10 years.....And some Red Cross employees were told to skip safety steps or falsify records to allow infected blood to be released. Despite years of violations, the Red Cross has insisted things can't be that bad because not many people are getting sick from transfusions.
  September 2002, HCV Transmission in a Hematology/Oncology Clinic - Nebraska In a gastroenterologist reported .. All of these patients had received chemotherapy at the same .. clinic. ..all were genotype 3a, Click here

December 27, 2002 Surgeon told hospital he had hepatitis C in 1995 By Roni Rabin STAFF WRITER Ever since reports revealed that a prominent Manhasset heart surgeon- Michael H. Hall- had inadvertently transmitted hepatitis C to several patients over the past 10 years

2002;34(8):580-2. Nosocomial transmission of HCV in a cardiology ward during the window phase of infection: an epidemiological and molecular investigation.

November 20, 2002 Reviving an old technology for large-scale vaccination Tuesday By Christopher Snowbeck, Post-Gazette Staff Writer possible for blood to be drawn back into the nozzle," said Linda D'Antonio (Note: jetguns)

9/18/02 NEW YORK (Reuters Health) One in ten veterans in New York City area infected with HCV NEW YORK (Reuters Health, 9/18/02) - The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among military veterans in the New York City metropolitan area is 10.6%,

Sept 2002, a gastroenterologist reported four patients with recently diagnosed HCV infection medication infusions routinely used the same syringe to draw blood from patients' central venous catheters and to draw catheter-flushing solution from 500-cc saline bags that were used for multiple patients....486 (79%) underwent HCV testing; 99 patients with clinic-acquired HCV infection.......Click Here

August 2002, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) six patients with suspected acute HCV infection who had received treatment from the same pain remediation clinic....through heparin locks...connected directly to intravenous cannulas $99,000 fine After June 2002, no evidence of HBV or HCV transmission associated with receiving treatment at the clinic was found. click here
July 20 Hepatitis C a Greater Threat to Healthcare Workers Than HIV ATLANTA (Reuters Health) - The risk that healthcare workers will become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) following an accidental needlestick is 20 to 40 times greater than their risk of HIV infection Click here Risk of Hepatitis C Virus Transmission From an Infected Gynecologist to Patients: Results of a 7-Year Retrospective Investigation
Ross et al.
Arch Intern Med 2002;162:805-810.
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
CDC 2002 Sterilization or Disinfection of Medical Devices  
05/02 HEPATITIS C - TRANSMISSION BY TOOTHBRUSHES: A MYTH OR A REAL POSSIBILITY? ...contamination with HCV-RNA can be detected at a large portion of toothbrushes used by hep. C patients. In 2002, Ford Hospital warned patients about hepatitis Testing instruments possibly contaminated The case carrying the sterilized ear, nose and Throat scope, transmitted the virus.

Additional Documentation Non-Drug Related Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus
1991-2001

2001

Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for HBV, HCV, and HIV. (6/2001)  
September 2001 Don't Reuse Single-Use Medication Vials -Source: Healthcare Hazard Management Monitor -Improper medication practices in 15 patients in a hemodialysis center over a five-week period were associated with inappropriate use of single-use medication vials...often pooled residual medications to avoid waste...The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with the drug manufacturer, issued an advisory to hemodialysis centers... Personnel-to-Patient Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus: Underestimation of Exposure
Rieger et al.Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1017-1018.
FULL TEXT
2001 HBV and HCV Transmission in a Pain Remediation Clinic --- Oklahoma In August 2002, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) was informed of six patients with suspected acute HCV infection who had received treatment from the same pain remediation clinic. 908 patients attending the clinic. A total of 69 HCV Click Here

 

May 2001 HCV Transmission in a Private Physician's Office --- New York City ....seven patients who had acute HCV infections after undergoing endoscopic procedures...Among 61...12 acute HCV cases was identified....However, the investigation revealed inappropriate infection-control and injection practices, which indicated that the probable route of transmission was contamination of multiple-dose anesthesia medication vials. Click Here
Monday 7 May 2001 Women contract hepatitis C in surgery
By BRETT FOLEY MEDICAL REPORTER
"...control guidelines are to be toughened after two women contracted hepatitis C during routine surgery...during arthroscopy and colonoscopy operations at separate hospitals"
April 4, 2001 Hepatitis C Infection Control:Issues and Answers for Health Care Workers http://www.hivdent.org/infctl/hepatiti.htm
Tattooing A Major Route Of Hepatitis C Infection
DALLAS, TX -- The study found that people who had received a tattoo in a commercial tattoo parlor were nine times more likely to be infected with hepatitis C than people who did not have a tattoo.
May 2001 HCV Transmission in a Private Physician's Office - New York City ...a physician notified the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH) of seven patients who had acute HCV infections after undergoing endoscopic procedures at the same office in March 2001. Click here
 
2001 Hepatitis C Survives Treatment with Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants
http://hcvets.com/data/transmission_methods/Sterilants_
Disinfectants.htm
SAFETEC SANIZIDE PLUSTM
December 2001, HBV Transmission in a Private Physician's Office --- New York City... visited the office of the same physician.. preliminary investigation by NYCDOH identified 19 additional cases...retrospective cohort study ...among the 275 patients .. Of 91 patients ... 18 were infected. Among 67 patients who received at least one injection, 18 (27%) ...compared with none who received no injections click here Risk of HIV and Other Blood-Borne Infections in the Cardiac Setting: Patient-to-Provider and Provider-to-Patient Transmission PURO et al.
Annals NYAS Online 2001;946:291-309.
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT

2000

American Journal of Industrial Medicine...16,000 hepatitis C, 66,000 hepatitis B and 1,000 HIV infections may have occurred in 2000 worldwide among healthcare workers due to their occupational exposure to injuries... A Proposed National Policy on Health Care Workers Living With HIV/AIDS and Other Blood-Borne Pathogens
Gostin JAMA 2000;284:1965-1970.ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Brief Report: Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus from a Patient to an Anesthesiology Assistant to Five Patients NEJM Volume 343(25), 21 December 2000, pp
1851-1854
 
Mar 2000 Am J Gastroenterol.;95(3):740-7. Comment in: Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Mar;95(3):582-3. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in American veterans.... We found the epidemiology of hepatitis C infection was different in the veteran population when compared to other published data on nonveterans. Hepatitis C infection was much more common among veteran, within a very narrow age distribution Dec 2000.....Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus from a Patient to an Anesthesiology Assistant to Five Patients.
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/343/25/1851
Gloveless Healthcare Worker Gives Hepatitis C to 5 Patients Phlebotomy Today- Claiming that gloves diminished the sense of touch he needed for his work, an anesthesiology technician has been found to have infected five hospital patients... researchers blamed the technician after DNA studies confirmed that the virus acquired by the five patients was identical to that carried by the technician
Hepatitis C Virus Transmission in a Pediatric Oncology Ward ...
... anesthesiology assistant, who contracted infection from a patient, transmitted the virus to 6 ... period before falling ill from acute hepatitis C (Ross et al ...
Mar;20, 2000 Hand Contamination with Hepatitis C Virus in Staff Looking after Hepatitis C-Positive Hemodialysis Patients. Am J Nephrol 2000 (2):103-106 Alfurayh O, et.al- Department of Medicine, The hands of dialysis personnel are therefore a potential mode for facilitating transmission of HCV between HD patients. click here Friday 31 March 2000 ISSUE 1771
Hepatitis alert as doctors infect surgery patients
By Celia Hall, Medical Editor
ABOUT 4,500 patients who have undergone surgery in hospitals across England and Wales were told yesterday that they may have been infected with hepatitis C.

Risk of Hepatitis C Transmission From Infected Medical Staff to Patients Model-Based Calculations for Surgical Settings R. Stefan Ross, MD; Sergei Viazov, PhD; Michael Roggendorf, MD Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2313-2316.

 

HCV Transmitted to Five Patients in Miami Hospital By Harvey S. Bartnof, MD Five persons became infected with HCV (* hepatitis C virus) in a Miami hospital, according to Dr. Gerald Krause, MD, ...reported the findings at the recent International Conference on Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) Infections ...The only potential common source was saline (salt water) drawn from a multiple-dose vial that was shared by health professionals on the same ward.

1999

Preventing Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Settings. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2000-108 (Alert), (1999, November). NIOSH warns that health care workers who use or may be exposed to needles are at increased risk of needlestick injury.  
Hepatology, January 1999, p. 299-300, Vol. 29, No. 1 Correspondence To the Editor: In their interesting review, Heintges and Wands1 wrote: "... HCV-RNA was detectable in more than one-half of the intramuscular preparations of immunoglobulins. Thus, patients with immunoglobulin deficiency and who received such prophylactic antibody preparations frequently developed chronic HCV infection."

 

*October 1999 Safety and availability of immunoglobulin replacement therapy in relation to potentially transmissable agents Clinical & Experimental Immunology Volume 118 Issue s1 Page 29 - ... However, the role of partitioning of viruses ......As Cohn–Oncley fractionation is not sufficient to remove lipid-coated viruses, additional antiviral inactivation steps are required.
1999 Bull World Health Organ. ;77(10):789-800.Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review.Simonsen L, Kane A, Lloyd J, Zaffran M, Kane M.World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Unsafe injections are suspected to occur routinely...to quantify the prevalence ..and to assess the disease burden of bloodborne infections ... unsafe injections (defined as the reuse of syringe or needle between patients without sterilization)...This situation needs to be addressed immediately, as a political and policy issue, with responsibilities clearly defined at the global, country and community levels...Such practices account for a significant number of hepatitis B and C infections.
CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47(No. RR-19). http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00055154.htm

 

High risk of non-A non-B hepatitis after a first exposure to volunteer or commercial clotting factor concentrates: effects of prophylactic immune serum globulin. Kernoff PB, Lee CA, Karayiannis P, Thomas HC. 9/9 British patients treated with U.S.A.-derived commercial products, and 10/12 treated with British volunteer (NHS) products, developed acute non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Hepatitis following commercial products ...by administration of U.S.A.-derived commercial immune serum globulin (ISG). Hamid SS, Farooqui B, Rizvi Q, Sultana T, Siddiqui AA. Risk of transmission and features of hepatitis C after needlestick injuries. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20:63–64. doi: 10.1086/501547. [PubMed]

February 24, 1999 Opening Statement by Michael Galster: Conference on Contaminated Prison Plasma National Press Club, Washington D.C. Michael Galster …We ask that they bring those people forward to answer for their involvement in this crime against humanity.

(1998-1999) Manufacturer discontinuation of large multi-dose vials for yellow fever, meningococcal, and tetanus-diphtheria vaccines because of military withdrawal of Ped-O-Jets® JETGUN capable of using them (MMQC-99-1248 dated 1998-Nov-03 and MMQC-99-1251 dated 1999-Aug-12).

Selecting, Evaluating, and Using Sharps Disposal Containers. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-111, (1998, January). Presents a comprehensive framework for selecting sharps disposal containers and evaluating their efficacy as part of an overall needlestick injury prevention plan, reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) bloodborne pathogens standard and recommends containers on the basis of a site-specific hazard analysis, and establishes criteria and provides tools for evaluating the performance of sharps disposal containers. What Every Worker Should Know: How to Protect Yourself From Needlestick Injuries. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2000-135, (1997, July). Discusses pathogens that pose the most serious health risks
October 27, 1998 SFGate DEADLY NEEDLES Fast Track to Global Disaster Reynolds Holding, William Carlsen, Chronicle Staff Writers- For decades, researchers warned that contaminated syringes could transmit deadly viruses with cruel efficiency. But efforts to defuse the crisis were failed, and today, it has become an insidious global epidemic, destroying millions of lives every year.

 

Hamid SS, Farooqui B, Rizvi Q, Sultana T, Siddiqui AA. Risk of transmission and features of hepatitis C after needlestick injuries. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:63-4
March 5, 1998
The newly appointed surgeon general, David Satcher, speaks to the House subcommittee "We know that many Americans infected ...unaware that they have the disease," "Many with hepatitis C virus have no reason to believe they are infected," Koop said. "Many of those at high risk are average people -- middle-aged housewives who had a cesarean section delivery, young adults who had transfusions as high-risk babies or middle-aged men who served in Vietnam."
October 27, 1998
NEEDLE SAFETY IS TOPIC OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE Two 3-part series of articles on needle safety were published in 1998 by the San Francisco Chronicle. The first series, "Deadly Needles," caught the attention of readers by claiming that "one million health care workers each year are injured by needle sticks -
Jan 17, 1998 Contamination of doctors' and nurses' pens with nosocomial pathogens. Lancet. 1998 Jan 17;351(9097):213. No abstract available.
PMID: 9449890; UI: 98111543.
New 1998 Hepatitis C From Mosquito Bites? Come on! found that up to 16% of the mosquitoes carried the antibody to hepatitis C. This suggests that the mosquitoes had bitten someone with hepatitis C.
7 Patients Acquire HCV at US Hemodialysis Center By Harvey S. Bartnof, MD- CDC reports that seven patients likely acquired HCV (hepatitis C virus) from a US hemodialysis (blood filtering) center. Suzanne Cotter, MD, from the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was the lead author. The cluster acquired HCV during the period from September 1997 and October 1998.

Study blames technician for hepatitis in patients- The Associated Press - Cdn. Liver Foundation-
NEW YORK -- A medical technician with a cut on his finger accidentally infected five hospital patients with the dangerous hepatitis C virus in the first documented case of its kind, German researchers say.
 

1998

Nelsing S, Nielsen TL, Nielsen JO. Noncompliance with universal precautions and the associated risk of mucocutaneous blood exposure among Danish physicians. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18:692–698. [PubMed] May 1998 Current Opinion in Psychiatry - Fulltext: Volume 11(3)p Discarded needles do not increase soon after the opening of a needle exchange ... HIV infection risk behaviours and methadone treatment: client-reported HIV
*July 24, 1997 New England Journal of Medicine Patient-to-Volume 337:237-240 Patient Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Colonoscopy Michalsen A, Delclos GL, Felknor SA, Davidson AL, Johnson PC, Vesley D, Murphy LR, Kelen GD, Gershon RR. Compliance with universal precautions among physicians. J Occup Environ Med. 1997;39:130–137. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199702000-00010. [PubMed]

1997

1997 Genetic and Serological Evidence for Multiple Instances of Unrecognized Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in Hemodialysis Units jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/36/10/2926 July 20 Hepatitis C a Greater Threat to Healthcare Workers Than HIV ATLANTA (Reuters Health) - The risk that healthcare workers will become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) following an accidental needlestick is 20 to 40 times greater than their risk of HIV infection, according to data presented here at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Disease. click here

1997 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH CONSENSUS CONFERENCE, held from March 24-26, in Bethesda Maryland. Hospitalized patients may serve as a reservoir for transmission; the prevalence of anti-HCV among such patients has been reported to range from 2% to 18% http://www.hepnet.com/nih/malter.html

1997 Risk of a Haircut Letter to the editor from the Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 126:5, 1 March, pg. 410-411. The antiseptic fluids used to clean the razor did not destroy the viral RNA. We wonder whether the routine male haircut may be a risk factor for HCV infection.Norman Gitlin, MD; Frederick S Nolte, MD; Michael Weiss, MD Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta GA 30322

Evaluation of Blunt Suture Needles in Preventing Percutaneous Injuries Among Health-Care Workers During Gynecologic Surgical Procedures; New York City, March 1993-June 1994. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 46(02);25-29, (1997, January 17). Identifies the effectiveness of blunt needles in reducing percutaneous injuries (PIs) and suggests that they should be considered for more widespread use in surgical procedures.  

1996

MJA 1996; 164: 533-536 Conclusions: Reuse of medical devices labeled "single use only" is common... Most devices appear to be unsuitable for reuse. Complete cessation of this practice of reusing single-use medical devices would stop potential cross-infection, but this would cost an estimated $2.5 million or more per case prevented April, 1996 New England Journal of Medicine. 1996;550-560; Current Papers in Liver Disease).Ross et al. report on an outbreak of hepatitis C in a municipal hospital in Germany. ...HCV was transmitted from a patient with chronic hepatitis C undergoing surgery to an anesthesiology technician ...in the operating room. ...technician in turn infected five other patients over the next several weeks. Sequencing of the genetic material of the HCV .. suggested ... from the initial patient. ... provides evidence that HCV can be transmitted from medical personnel other than surgeons to patients. ... note that the .. technician did not use gloves while starting intravenous lines in patients click here
Ramsey PW, McConnell P, Palmer BH, Glenn LL. Nurses' compliance with universal precautions before and after implementation of OSHA regulations. Clin Nurse Spec. 1996;10:234–239. doi: 10.1097/00002800-199609000-00008. [PubMed]  
9/30/1996 FDA Recall of Swiss Red Cross Albumin Lot # 6.231.026.0 - 9/20/1996 FDA Bacterial Sepsis Associated With the Use of Centeon Albumin (Human), Albuminar -
10/9/1996 FDA Advises Public of Voluntary Worldwide Recall of All Albuminar and Plasma-Plex Manufactured by Centeon, L.L.C. - 10/4/1996 FDA Recall of Antihemophilic Factor (Factor VIII) (Centeon LLC) -
11/7/1996 Use of Recalled Albumin (Human) in the Manufacture of Products - 12/23/1996 Partially Manufactured Pastes Withdrawn Due to the Possibility of the Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (multiple manufacturers) -
12/23/1996 Albumin Products Withdrawn Due to the Possibility of the Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (multiple manufacturers) - Garner, J. S., and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 1996. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 17:53-80[Medline].
http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/external_ref?access_num=8789689&link_type=MED

1995

National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, (e-mail:kamal412496@yahoo.com) "this continuous increase in HCV infection among IDUs, despite the needle and syringe exchange programme, is a cause for concern. The cause of this striking increase in HCV infection is unclear." 1995 J Viral Hepat.; 2(3): 113-9. Methods of transmission of hepatitis C.Tibbs The detection of hepatitis C in saliva and the higher than expected prevalence of infection in dentists may point to the possibility of transmission by salivary contamination. There remain large numbers of hepatitis C carriers in whom no route of infection can be identified.

1994

A new blood scandal: hepatitis C Broadcast Date: Dec. 13, 1994 It's a familiar story: a deadly virus has infected the blood supply. Many people don't know they're infected until a number of symptoms prompt a test and a diagnosis. But this isn't AIDS: it's hepatitis C, 1 Dec 94-1 Aug 95 WALTER REED ARMY MEDICAL CENTER WASHINGTON DC Clinical Impact of Hepatitis C Infection in Military Active Duty Women- HCV-infection (2.7%) is seen in excess than the rate observed among healthy American blood donors (0.5%) .
Henry K, Campbell S, Collier P, Williams CO. Compliance with universal precautions and needle handling and disposal practices among emergency department staff at two community hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 1994;22:129–137. doi: 10.1016/0196-6553(94)90001-9. [PubMed] Gershon RRM, Vlahov D, Felknor SA, Vesley D, Johnson PC, Delcios GL, Murphy LR. Compliance with universal precautions among health care workers at three regional hospitals. American Journal of Infection Control. 1995;23:225–236. doi: 10.1016/0196-6553(95)90067-5. [PubMed]
*Accession Number : ADA280333 Title :
Low Risk of Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in Somalia
Corporate Author : NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INST BETHESDA MD

1994....Hepatitis C transmission in a hemodialysis unit: molecular evidence for spread of virus among patients not sharing equipment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7545963?dopt=Abstract

Frequent patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis C virus in a haematology ward.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7545963?dopt=Abstract
February 21, 1994 Hepatitis C and Plasma derivatives Outbreak of Hepatitis C Associated with Intravenous Immunoglobulin Administration October 1993–June 1994 , the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was notified of 14 possible cases from three different countries of acute hepatitis C among persons who had received intravenous immunoglobulin

1993

November 19, 1993 INACTIVATION OF VIRUSES IN BLOOD COMPONENT NIH GUIDE, Volume 22, Number 42, IN VITRO INACTIVATION OF VIRUSES IN BLOOD COMPONENTS- Current risks of being infected with a unit of screened blood are 1 in 3,000 for HCV, 1 in 200,000 for HBV, and 1 in 225,000 for HIV. In addition, viruses such as the human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) types I and II, and
cytomegalovirus (CMV), also pose potential risks
Henry K, Campbell S, Maki M. A comparison of observed and self-reported compliance with universal precautions among emergency department personnel at a Minnesota public teaching hospital: implications for assessing infection control programs. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21:940–946. doi: 10.1016/S0196-0644(05)82932-4. [PubMed]
Sharps Disposal Containers with Needle Removal Features. OSHA Hazard Information Bulletin (HIB), (1993, March 12). Alerts field personnel to the risk of possible safety and health hazards that may arise with the use of some sharps disposal containers that incorporate an "unwinder" mechanism to accomplish needle removal. Evaluation of Safety Devices for Preventing Percutaneous Injuries Among Health-Care Workers During Phlebotomy Procedures -- Minneapolis-St. Paul, New York City, and San Francisco, 1993-1995. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 46(02);21-25, (1997, January 17). Indicates that the use of phlebotomy safety devices significantly reduces phlebotomy-related percutaneous injury (PI) rates.
Needlestick and Other Risks from Hypodermic Needles on Secondary I.V. Administration Sets - Piggyback and Intermittent I.V. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety Alert, (1992, April 16). Urges the use of needleless systems or recessed needle systems to reduce the risk of needlestick injuries.  

1991

In 1991, OSHA issued the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) to protect workers from this risk. In 2001, in response to the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act, OSHA revised the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. The revised standard clarifies the need for employers to select safer needle devices and to involve employees in identifying and choosing these devices. The updated standard also requires employers to maintain a log of injuries from contaminated sharps.
 
 
In 1991, OSHA issued the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) to protect workers from this risk. In 2001, in response to the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act, OSHA revised the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. The revised standard clarifies the need for employers to select safer needle devices and to involve employees in identifying and choosing these devices. The updated standard also requires employers to maintain a log of injuries from contaminated sharps.
 
MMWR. 1991;40:1-8) The CDC Guideline Recommendations for preventing transmission during exposure-prone invasive procedures. is here: "The guidelines stated that infected health care workers who adhere to universal precautions and who do not perform invasive procedures pose no risk for transmitting.

A prospective study of the hazards of multiple use of disposable syringes and needles in intensified insulin therapy.Diabet Med. 1990 Aug;7(7):624-7.
PMID: 2146071; UI: 91030437.

Centers for Disease Control. 1988. Update: Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus and Other Bloodborne Pathogens in Healthcare Settings. MMWR, 37:377-382, 387, 388.
Kelen GD, DiGiovanna TA, Celentano DD, Kalainov D, Bisson L, Junkins E, Stein A, Lofy L, Scott CR, Sivertson KT, et al. Adherence to Universal (barrier) Precautions during interventions on critically ill and injured emergency department patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3:987–994. [PubMed] Centers for Disease Control. 1987. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 36(2S):1S-18S.
 

 

May 6, 1988 Failure of gloves and other protective devices to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus to oral surgeons. JAMA;259(17):2558-60 Reingold AL, Kane Department of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. A survey of 434 oral surgeons was conducted to examine risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Overall, 112 (26%) of the participants demonstrated serologic evidence of past or current infection with HBV. click here Jun 7 1987 Possible infectious causes in 651 patients with acute viral hepatitis during a 10-year period (1976-1985). Liver - Six hundred and fifty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis were identified serologically between January 1976 and December 1985. Of these, 109 (17%) had hepatitis A, 135 (21%) had hepatitis B, and 407 (62%) had hepatitis non-A, non-B. click here
1986 Veterans Administration cooperative study on hepatitis and dentistry. Am Dent Assoc Sep;113(3):390-6 Schiff ER, Oral and maxillofacial surgeons composed the highest prevalence occupation (24.0%), 1977 72(1):111-21 Jan Veterans Administration cooperative study A randomized, double blind controlled trial of the efficacy of immune serum globulin for the prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis. A Seeff LB, Gastroenterology ...controlled trial has been conducted in 11 Veterans Administration hospitals during a 49-month period The data suggest, however, that a similar reduction in type non-A, non-B hepatitis would have occurred had commercial blood been excluded from use. Furthermore, the efficacy of the ISG, manufactured in 1944, against apparent type non-A, non-B hepatitis suggests that this overlooked disease has existed from at least that time. Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial More info

Maryland: hepatitis C fatality in Baltimore shrouded in mysterySource: The Baltimore Sun, Tue 4 Jan 2005 [edited]
http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/health/bal-te.hepatitis04jan04,1,361241.story?coll=bal-home-headlines
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As thousands of other patients do every year, a patient walked into a Glen Burnie cardiology clinic last October [2004] for a routine cardiac stress test. But what happened over the next 2 months wasn't so routine: The 79-year-old retired ironworker developed a hepatitis C infection that ultimately took his life on Christmas Day [25 Dec 2004]. -- is drawing new attention to an unusual medical mystery under investigation by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

Officials have traced the patient's infection to a single vial of technetium-99m, a radioactive isotope injected into the bloodstream during stress tests and other routine diagnostic procedures.

Source: The Baltimore Sun, Tue 4 Jan 2005 [edited]
Maryland: hepatitis C fatality in Baltimore shrouded in mystery
http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/health/bal-te.hepatitis04jan04,1,361241.story?coll=bal-home-headlines

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As thousands of other patients do every year, a patient walked into a Glen Burnie cardiology clinic last October [2004] for a routine cardiac stress test. But what happened over the next 2 months wasn't so routine: The 79-year-old retired ironworker developed a hepatitis C infection that ultimately took his life on Christmas Day [25 Dec 2004]. The patient's death -- one of just 6 hepatitis C-related fatalities officially recorded in Maryland since 1999 -- is drawing new attention to an unusual medical mystery under investigation by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

Officials have traced the patient's infection to a single vial of technetium-99m, a radioactive isotope injected into the bloodstream during stress tests and other routine diagnostic procedures.
Investigators won't say how many people have been infected, or where they live. However, the company whose Timonium pharmacy prepared the suspect isotope said the state has identified at least 12 people in
the Baltimore area. The 79-year old patient, who lived in Brooklyn Park, is the only fatality.

The case has baffled physicians and nuclear medicine experts, who say they can recall no other instance in which a common radioactive isotope has become contaminated with [a] hepatitis [virus]. "It's very unusual and not expected at all," says Fadia Shaya of the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, who chairs the state's advisory council on hepatitis C. "This kind of thing should not happen."

Hepatitis C, a liver disease caused by a virus of the same name, is typically transmitted through infected blood or semen. The disease kills as many as 10 000 people in the U.S. each year. The majority of new infections are contracted through illicit drug use. The vial of technetium-99m that officials suspect as the cause of the infection here was prepared at a so-called nuclear pharmacy in Timonium. Operated by Cardinal Health of Dublin, Ohio, the pharmacy specializes in preparing radioactive "tracers" for a variety of diagnostic tests. The company has temporarily closed the business until investigators have pinpointed the source of the virus.

John Hammond, a spokesman for the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, said the hepatitis C outbreak does not pose a public health risk and was confined to the small number of people injected with
serum from the tainted vial. Maryland, he said, recorded 26 cases of hepatitis C in 2004, including those in the recent outbreak. The state reported 9 cases the previous year and 14 cases in 2002.

One of the central mysteries is how the radioactive isotope could have become contaminated, especially since the preparation of technetium-99m is considered to be a straightforward process. "How in the world did this happen?" says Nicki Hilliard, a nuclear pharmacist at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. "It's bizarre." Hilliard said that the isotope is typically produced in a pinkie-sized container known as a radionucleotide generator. To create a dose, technicians pass standard saline solution through the generator, a process known as "milking." As a result, the generators themselves are sometimes known as "cows." Technicians capture the saline in a small vial and stir in a powdered chemical tracer. The tracer binds to the isotope and ferries it through the patient's bloodstream to the specific organ or tissue that needs to be examined.

The victim's widow said her husband received the isotope during a cardiac stress test at Arundel Heart Associates in Glen Burnie. Before the test, she said, he was in good health, and the procedure was considered routine. As part of the test, doctors typically inject the isotope into the patient's bloodstream and ask the patient to walk on a treadmill for a short period to increase the pulse rate. Then they examine the patient's heart using a radiation-sensitive camera to track blood flow and spot potential blockages.

Dr. Paul Young-Hyman, a cardiologist at the Glen Burnie clinic, said the suspect isotope arrived at the clinic in October 2004 in 8 individually prepared syringes, each in a lead-lined container. All 8 patients who received the isotope on 15 Oct 2004 have since tested positive for hepatitis C, he said. Young-Hyman said that when word started filtering back that several patients who had stress tests that day had been diagnosed with hepatitis, the clinic notified county health officials, who ultimately contacted the state.

The cardiologist said all the clinic's employees have tested negative for the virus, and health officials have examined the clinic's laboratory and found it contamination free. As a precautionary measure, however, stress tests at the clinic are now being performed with a different radioactive tracer. "I'm just hoping that people who need the study don't hold back on getting it," says Young-Hyman. "This case really does fall into the category of bizarre."

Hepatitis C has an average incubation period of 6 to 8 weeks, and the victim was fine until mid-November 2004, when he lost his appetite and started to feel nauseous, family members said. His wife initially chalked it up to stomach flu, from which she was just recovering. But when he didn't improve, he went to see the doctor. A few days later, tests came back positive for hepatitis C. Around this time, state health officials began notifying hospitals and physicians to watch for signs of the disease, including fatigue, jaundice, abdominal pain and nausea. As his condition deteriorated in the following weeks, he was admitted to North Arundel Hospital twice before finally being taken to Harbor Hospital on 23 Dec 2004, and he died on Christmas Day [25 Dec 2004].

[Byline: Michael Stroh]

--
Jonathan Nash
jnash@qis.net

Read more 2006 Hepatitis C virus infections from a contaminated radiopharmaceutical used in myocardial perfusion studies. 2006 JAMA 2006;296:2005--11.Patel PR, Larson AK, Castel AD, et al The findings ... demonstrate that bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted in any setting where blood exposures occur and aseptic technique is compromised... The findings from this investigation, as well as other reported outbreaks, underscore a need for heightened awareness and renewed vigilance.