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1970 Jetgun
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Dried Hepatitis C Blood Exposure 11/23/2013 Weeks later inconspicuous blood transmits virus and more likely to cause accidental exposures to Hep C
2013 AASLD Study Hepatitis C not an STD
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Medical Journals


1970 Warning- Jetguns & Vaccines

From the British Medical Journal dated Oct 1970.
"Though smallpox vaccination by jet injection is accepted in the U.S.A." it is rarely carried out in Britain, partly because
of problems associated with the dilution of vaccine LYMPH to volumes which can be used by jet injectors, and partly because LYMPH is NOT necessarily bacteriologically sterile and has, therefore, been regarded as unsuitable for intradermal inoculation."

Lymph is the same thing as blood plasma....and plasma contains a protein called ALBUMIN. So if plasma is not sterile then neither is albumin. The British Government refused to use it .

1948 Inoculation Hepatitis Study Experience has shown that it is very difficult to achieve a fully reliable sterilization of blood guns. Washing with ether, alcohol, or other disinfectants is not sufficient."
1970 Jetgun Warning & Vaccines Though smallpox vaccination by jet injection is accepted in the U.S.A." it is rarely carried out in Britain, partly because of problems associated with the dilution of vaccine LYMPH to volumes...used by jet injectors, and partly because LYMPH is NOT necessarily bacteriologically sterile...regarded as unsuitable for intradermal inoculation." Lymph is the same thing as blood plasma....and plasma contains a protein called ALBUMIN. So if plasma is not sterile then neither is albumiin.
1977 SInce late 1974 and early 1975, several cases of viral hepatitis were reported in Italy among subjects who had received subcutaneous injections of a drug containing human immunoglobulins
1977 Warning Furthermore, the efficacy of the ISG, manufactured in 1944, against apparent type non-A, non-B hepatitis suggests that this overlooked disease has existed from at least that time.
1978 ISG- 90% had acute HCV 14 batches of anti-D immune globulin contaminated with hepatitis C virus... Within 6 months after anti-D administration, 10% of these women had no evidence of disease and 90% had acute hepatitis C
1982 Plasma derivatives & viral hep low-risk irrespective of the plasma from which they are manufactured because they are heated at 60 degrees C for 10 hours (Albumin, Plasma Protein Fraction) or because they contain protective antibodies (Immune Globulin).
1986 ISG Formula- 3 Generations More than half of the commercial intramuscular immune globulin lots, including specific immune globulin. All immune globulin products examined were reactive for anti-HCVproducts, were HCV RNA positive. All immune globulin products examined were reactive for anti-HCV.
1987 DoD Follow-up Serologic Follow-up of 1942 Epidemic of Post-Vaccination Hepatitis in the U.S. Army- outbreak was linked to specific lots of yellow-fever vaccine stabilized with human serum
1992-1996 Contamination Contaminated Immunoglobulin Research
1994 Detection HCV RNA in immune globulins More than half of the commercial intramuscular immune globulin lots, including specific immune globulin. All immune globulin products examined were reactive for anti-HCVproducts, were HCV RNA positive. All immune globulin products examined were reactive for anti-HCV.
1995 FDA Guide to Inspections of Blood Banks-Cohn-Oncley method relies on precipitation of plasma proteins
1996 Cardiac Surgeon Risk Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus by a Cardiac Surgeon...evidence that a cardiac surgeon with chronic hepatitis C may have transmitted HCV to five of his patients during open-heart surgery.
1996 Cardiac Surgeon Transmisson Hepatitis C may be transmitted during surgery- An infected cardiac surgeon transmitted the virus to five patients during open heart surgery.
1996 CDC Jetgun Advisory Committee Faulty Design...Various routes of transmission ...documented, including ...blood products, use of jet gun injectors with a design fault that allowed blood to remain inside the equipment, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, and indirect transfer from contaminated environmental surfaces in haemodialysis units....
1998 manufacture of human albumin Chromatographic removal and heat inactivation of hepatitis during the manufacture of human albumin- purpose to examine efficacy... manufacturing process
1998-Jetgun Contamination This study demonstrated that needleless injectors become contaminated during in vitro use and direct contact with contaminated surfaces and that needleless injectors carry over the contamination to subsequent sites of release.
1999 Safety and availability of immunoglobulin replacement therapy in relation to potentially transmissable agents- Cohn–Oncley fractionation is not sufficient to remove lipid-coated viruses, additional antiviral inactivation steps are required.
1999 Hepatitis C Survives Hepatitis C NOT Killed by Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants
1999 Risk of cross-patient infection use of a needleless injector device. Postejection reverse flow drew contaminants into the device, and increased with ejection volume.
2000 Origins of HCV Epidemic "Why does the world's medical community continue to ignore these figures...stop the practice of allowing multi-use syringes... world over. mandatory in all mass vaccination programs...contribute significantly to the scourge of disease..."  
2001 Jetguns Transmit Infection Jet Injectors Capable of Transmitting Blood-Borne Pathogens-Jet injectors may be ideal for mass immunization programs but not until design refinements eliminate their capacity to transmit blood-borne infections....
2003 Global Burden Italy Poorly cleaned glass syringes used to administer the polio vaccine in the 1950s and 60s could have spread the hepatitis C virus
2003 NIH Guidelines Nosocomial transmission of bloodborne viruses from infected health care workers to patients...some occupations ... higher risk ... rate of HCV in oral surgeons
2003 Risk of EMG Needles “Platinum single fiber electrodes ... including the use of disposable NCS electrodes, .. with patients.. with agents ...Hepatitis C virus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and human immunodeficiency virus”.
2003 Risk of EMG Needles disposable NCS electrodes...patients with ... Hepatitis C virus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and human immunodeficiency virus”
2004 CDC Risk Factors Position-Any percutaneous exposure has the potential for transferring infectious blood and potentially transmitting bloodborne pathogens (e.g., HBV, HCV, or HIV); however, no data exist
2004 The Hepatitis Report Natural History, Clinical Manifestations, and Prognostic Indicators of Disease Progression and Survival of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection
2004 Transfusions- Fatal Bacterial Infections Health-care providers should be aware of the new standard and the need for bacterial testing of platelets to improve transfusion safety.
2005 Needleless Connectors Relationship Needleless Connectors and Bacteremia: Is There a Relationship? ...integral components of an infusion worker safety part of the continuing development of infusion technology
2008 CDC- Jetguns (PCNIF) Fail Safety Test The study ended early because the PCNFI failed to prevent contamination in the first batch tested (8.2% failure rate)..
2008 HCV via contaminated Surfaces Nosocomial" transmission in healthcare settings is the second most common route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, after shared use of needles and other injection equipment.
2008 Multi-Risk Transmission Factors Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission- Infectious Diseases 2008, 8:69...More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery...
2008 The hazards of blood transfusion in historical perspective Current technologies require the addition of either psoralens or riboflavin to blood, followed by exposure to UV light. These methods are being applied to platelets in Europe and will comp
2010 CDC Report- Mulitple Exposures HCV quasispecies sequences from the patients were nearly identical (96.9%–100%) to those from source patients with chronic viral hepatitis. All affected patients in both clinics received
2010 HCV screening strategies HCV testing was performed in 3803. Of these, 11.5% were positive, prevalence of HCV infection of 7.7%, 5 times higher than the estimated...40% of HCV-positive persons were unaware of their status.
AASLD Hepatitis C  not an STD Study-HCV disease proves not to be an STD... The disease transmits by blood to blood transmission. Science has proved again, this virus does not transmit unless blood by both people is exchanged.
Ambulatory Care Stetting Risks Ambulatory Care Setting- 'prevalence 3-7 times higher than 1.6% reported by CDC'.. expanded to include birth cohort
Clinical management of drug–drug interactions his overview illustrates that drug–drug interactions are an important and potentially frequent problem when using DAAs in clinical practice. It also shows, however, that many of the interactions are manageable by either dose adjustments or selecting a safe alternative, but only if one has sufficient knowledge and expertise to deal with these pharmacokinetic issues.
Dental treatmen was commonest conventional risk factor Dental treatment: 278 (32.55%)...Non-conventional transmission of hepatitis C: a true possibility ignored... show very high risk for HCV transmission by dental procedures.
Dr. David Ross, VA Director of the National Hepatitis C Program, reply to Dr. Cecil
Dried Hepatitis C Blood Exposure The Hepatitis C virus transmitted for 63 days after the virus dried and the contents of syringes and surfaces were analyzed
Federal response to Veterans with Hepatitis C "You've got a demon on your hands," he said. "You'd better find out where that's coming from if you can."
HCV & Depression Meta-Analysis One in 4 chronic hepatitis C patients who start interferon and ribavirin treatment will develop an induced major depressive episode.
HCV Detected in Dental Surgeries Our data indicate that there is extensive contamination by HCV of dental surgeries after treatment of anti-HCV patients and that if sterilisation and disinfection are inadequate there is the possible risk of transmission to susceptible individuals
HCV Disease Dental Transmission Risk Dental procedures constitute a risk for HCV infection for the patient
HCV Disease Dermatological side effects Dermatological adverse events (AEs) are an existing concern during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peginterferon/ribavirin treatment. HCV infection leads to dermatological and muco-cutaneous manifestations including small-vessel vasculitis as part of the mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome.
HCV High Comorbidity Burden Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) disease can be complicated with comorbid conditions that may impact treatment eligibility and outcomes
Hearing loss related to treatment Sudden hearing loss associated with interferon.
Hepatitis C Risk Factors Now Included Age 45 and older ..found evidence that screening recommendations should be expanded to include the high prevalence birth cohort
Hepatitis C Treatment Options Study explains available and future drug treatments for hepatitis c
High Comorbidity Burden of the U.S. Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Population The researchers concluded that this U.S. medically insured HCV population is highly comorbid. Effective strategies to manage these comorbidities are necessary to allow wider access to HCV treatment and reduce the future burden of HCV disease and its manifestations.
Increasing Prevalence of HCC and Cirrhosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Our analysis highlights that the prevalence of cirrhosis has reached very high proportions among veterans with HCV infection. Given low anti-viral treatment rates for HCV, we believe that the burden of cirrhosis will continue to grow as the HCV cohort ages unless effective treatment can be provided to HCV patients in a timely manner. In light of the increasing burden of cirrhosis and HCC in patients with HCV, clinicians and healthcare system may need to develop strategies
Insulin Restance Roll in Treatment Resistance IR Effects Treatment Outcome
Jet injection History and Applications  
Jetgun sterilization before use is unnecessary This 1948 study by Robert Hingson stated the advantages of the Hypospray injector were, “2) the mechanical protection and preparation of the metapules, so that sterilization of the instrument before use is unnecessary,” and "4) in the field of pediatrics and military immunizations, the use of this instrument would save time of multiple sterilizations of equipment.” page 72
Liver Injury & Common Antibotics Warning  
Sen Sanders Tells VA Use Emergency Power Override Hep C Drug Patents Veterans told to wait until the liver is completely diseased before qualifying for the new "miracle" drugs... Read More
Tattoo RiskFactor ...those who had a tattoo had a 6.5-fold higher risk of testing positive for hepatitis C...
Testing for HCV after exposure Approximately 20%...have symptoms... before the seroconversioN...average approximately 50 days, although it can be as long as nine months
Thermal stability and inactivation of hepatitis C The results provide quantitative evidence for the potential use of a variety of approaches for inactivating HCV. The ability of HCVcc to survive ambient temperatures warrants precautions in handling and disposing of objects and materials that may have been contaminated with HCV.
VA HCV Prevalence VS Therapy The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among VA patients is 3x higher than in the general population. Recent VA data indicate that only about 14% of all HCV-infected VA patients have ever received antiviral therapy.
Vaccine- Department of Defense (DoD) immunization program- Full Report 1997 jet injector nozzles were frequently contaminated with blood, yet sterilization practices were frequently inadequate or not followed...
 Interferon: A Historical Perspective Unfortunately, the prolonged peginterferon therapy necessary to control chronic HCV or HBV infections was often associated with serious side effects such as fatigue, fever, and myalgias, symptoms of many acute virus infections, possibly because such effects are due to the induction of IFNs by the infecting agents.
 Prevalence of Hepatitis C ...resulted in a policy of immune globulin use for all deployed soldiers. By 1970, rates were one-half to one-third of the earlier rates... Hepatitis B immune globulin is listed as a Red Cross Risk Factor for transmission of Hepatitis C.


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